HIS263 St. George May 16 th
Chicago style- footnotes, endnotes
Origin Stories “earth diver”
Story that involves different animals floating in the water who dive down and try to pick up soil,
beaver fails, second animal duck fails to reach the bottom, the final animal manages to get some
soil the “muskrat” succeeds, once the final animal brings up soil it expands to be the continent of
North America, widespread story of native people. When historians are talking about it they use
Ethnohistory: focus of non European history, it uses a number of technics to get at the history,
they use …Oral Histories, Archaeology, Anthropology: field work, linguistics,
The Archaeology shows 10,000+ natives have been here, the debate on when the specific time is
hard, typically 20-30,000 years.
Overwhelming analysis of how they came was over the baring land bridge, from Siberia, Alaska,
during the last ice age, water levels were lower than today, there was one continent. You could
walk from Siberia to North America, consensus for how it was populated.
12,000 years ago there was a huge glacier across Alberta, Quebec, Hudson’s Bay. If people were
migrating they would have gone towards the south.
11,000 – 10,000 warming accelerated, glacier was significantly reduced, humans followed the
glaciers North, so towards Canada.
Human populations followed the glacier north as it retreated.
Aboriginal = Inuit + Indian (First Nation) + Metis term historians were writing in 1990s,
Indians (First Nations) past few decades’ respectful way to refer them as,
Inuit people who live in Artic regions,
Metis arose from the blending of cultures of the fur trade and the Europeans, 1600s, mid 1800s.
early 19 century distinct identity centered in southern Manitoba and Winnipeg.
Indigenous belonging to and coming from a particular place. Not only first nations but if new
comers have lived on the land, they would say they are indigenous to the land. 12 different language families in Canada, some languages have died out, others – jib way, Cree,
languages critical mass and chance of long term survival. All other 9 language families will be
gone in 20 yrs for native speakers raised in the language. Algonquian speakers were blackfoot,
cree, Ojibwa, cree, mikmaq, Maliseet < all within the same language not exact but most
Algonquian and Iroquoian speakers have tension.
The great plaines, cultural areas divided the different groups.
Cultural relativism would suggest they adopted to their environment, the natives had spears made
from stone, copper from lake superior, some metal work.
Pursued local adaptations from where they were living, crucial to live successfully in their
landscape. The Inuit Kayak- used water proof clothing, used whale intestines wear the garments
under there parkas. Inuit built houses out of snow,
Ojibway/ Anishinaaebe : birchbark canoes, very light and durable,
Eastern woodlands: Moccasins, practical had leather and warmth. Winter time was snowshoe,
Subsistence Management Strategies
Corn Northern Flint: Huron/Iroq grew this corn that was able to survive in northern climate, corn
often grown with bean and squash in < Iroq known as three sisters, compatible easily planted
together. First nations also wild rice < Alqon speaking people managed to manipulate the wild
rice production ways. Interactions with animals, changing the habitat, to promote the hunt, make
it easier to hunt the wild animals, Iroq burned the undergrowth of forest to bring in deer, clam
gardens were built. First nation people did not have domestic animals they had dogs. Had them
as human companions, hunting aids, pulling sleds and people, crucial early warning system,
protect from hostile intruder.
Calumet Pipe: Peace Pipes, decorated skins and bowls, the way there decreated in what you
want, white = peace, red = war feathers, what would be implied. That’s when it was activated,
idea that tobacoo was communication of earth and sky, shows the pipe was important for human
relations. Carved pipe-stone bowls.
Wampum belts = constructed from sea shells, significant images that signified there purposes,
people would hold hands, French and English up until 18 century would make the belts to give
to allies to side with them.
Politics: Broad tendency egalitarian arrangements were in the eastern woodlands, great plaines. were in
the great plaines (non hierarchy relations). West Coast hierarchy= clear commoners, slaves,
rulers. The Europeans wanted to impose hierarchy in the woodland, they would try to promote
this notion of a Chief even though the leaders tended to be the best warriors, hunters, but they
were not political or force, more through influence and respect.
Importance of kin ties= among the Algonquian people, these were past on the father, the
dodume, Iroq= kin identies were passed through the mother, manifested through the wife, move
into the wife house. West coast came from both sides.
An Old World: not unable to adapt to new technologies, unchanging past, idealism first nations
Trading and Exchange
War & Diplomacy
Demographic: population debate: pre contact controversial, estimates half a million to 1.5
million, were living in Canada prior to Europeans. Champlain in 1650 found a population to 20-
HIS263 St. George May 15
North American Landscapes
The Coming of Europeans
The societies were trade based economies, no states but polities (political unites but not states etc
Iroq Confederacy). These groups were great agriculturalist, Algon in the North still used
resource management strategies, could adapt easily but tended not to rely on agriculture. Algon
more egalitarian than the Huron and Iroq. North America was free from disease and people from
Europe in the 15 century (longer life expectancy in North America).
Why did they expand, what made it special?
Mercantilism: merchants desire for goods and wealth, needed royal permission to conduct trade,
this class needed the monarch to trade. Monarchs: were willing to fund explorations to explore, war and expansion
Missionaries: expand religion
Demographic: boom, recovered from plagues of 14 century, by late 15 century they
Hierarchy: Catholic Church influence over nations (super-national) with the pope issuing
guidelines that were taken up by local priests. Catholic Church gave a clear hierarchy.
Missionary programs had tried to change Jews, Muslims into Christians. King was resided above
a aristocracy, lived off the excess wealth by the peasants, peasants were tenants who were
required to have occasional labor. Those at the bottom were usually part of the explorations and
sailors of the oversea voyages, very risky (sickness, wrecks, warfare).
^social forces that contributed to the expansion
The three sail ship was advanced in European technology, woodworking, sailing etc. the oceans
were crucial for colonial power. Ship = travel mechanism and means of warfare till late 19 th
century. Cannon and musket > considerable role in colonialism.
Not Columbus in 1492, evidence of older exchanges. 2500 years ago, south American peanuts
had made there way to China, 800AD carving of god in India, knowledge of plants were being
transmitted over the ocean. Evidence of the Vikings coming to North America, used to Island
hop. Vikings who came had livestock with them.
L’Anse aux Meadows
Lief Ericsson: stories of these explorers had reached vineland at the L’anse site.
Snorri & Bjarni
“Skraelings” < 19
“Bullroarers” swinging in a certain way meant they wanted to trade or not, if they swing a certain
way they wanted war.
Cloak Pin: some fashionable in Viking time
Age of Exploration: Printing Press: Europeans began mapping and charting the world, coincided with press, 1440
influential, 20 million books printed by 1460, knowledge and ideas were exchanged, traveling
Protestant Reformation: 1517 Martin Luther corrupt practices of the catholic church, 1536
wanted to divorce his wife so he broke the church and led to the developing of a separate church.
Religious divisions within Europe would play a role of colonization of North America.
Late 1400s to early 1500s
Portuguese early powerhouse, Cape Breton Island, aid them in helping with their fish, Basque on
coast of NFLD and St. Lawrence built a station along the st Lawrence, boiling down whale fat to
John Cabot: sailed west to find the north west passage, made 1497 claimed what is now NFLD
for England. Amergo proved to Europeans it was a new land mass in America.
Fishermen & Beothuk: Beothuk were first nations in NFLD, could find materials when the
Europeans left in the winter, initial impulse for Europeans to leave people behind to protect those
in the output. Not positive, Europeans quite hostile encounters because of the scavenging
Whalers & Micmac: Micmac corrupting with the whalers in NB,
Tadoussac: fur trade on the St.Lawrence by 1500s, 1000 first nations came to trade, development
of the fur
very early, turning point when the French decided they wanted a colony.
France wanted a colony. Cartier knew what to bring with him in order to trade with him, metal
goods and red hats to the chiefs, based on prior trade and contact. Cartier was a French merchant,
from North Western France. Only men came to trade, while the women danced, Cartier stated he
was trying to claim the line who put a cross in the land to claim the land. Cartier deemed the
voyage as a failure because of no passage. He took two Iroq men and brought them back to
France. With the guidance of the two men he sailed to modern day Quebec
Cartier: Dom Agaya & Taignoagny < two he took back to France, guided him back to the St.
Lawrence and met Donnacona the boys father. Stadacona, became Quebec City.
Very distrustful of each other during the time, Cartier travelled up river to Montreal “Hochelaga”
long houses inside the wall, outside was fields of corn. After visiting he went to Quebec got
scurvy, made tea from white cedar tree, saved 85 French lives. Cartier returned in 1541, tried tth
make a settlement but then went back to Europe. Last time they would send voyages in the 16
century. Notions of hospitality were high, each side couldn’t believe the other didn’t behave how they expected. French didn’t recognize the hospitality and the Natives didn’t expect the authority
of the French.
Martin Frobisher: made voyages in 1576-78, trade positive interactions but the relationship
degenerated, took Inuit captives, died as soon as they got to Europe. His failure was the last
exploration to the artic because he didn’t find anything
Set out for new resources. Didn’t find gold & silver but fish and fur. New trading relationships
for first nations and Europeans, and trade radically changed. New furs were taken to Europe and
used for hats, European copper knives were admired and broken down into jewelry and
necklaces. Disease lasting impact, largely unknown what led to epidemics, thought the livestock
of domesticated animals, pigs, cows chicken fostered diseases, could travel on east and west axis.
Harder to travel north & south to cold & hot. No immunity to disease they had not be exposed to
it (no resistance).
Christianities & Commerce
European Dynamics: Protestant Reformation had spread to North Western Europe with large
populations, and Norther France and British Islands. Counter Reformation: Catholics fighting
back, height lasted from mid 1500s to 1600s with the same time of colonization of North
America. Although they agreed on this in principle, they were jealous. First Nations in the 17
century were Huron subject to missionaries work of the Recollets, and than the Jesuits in the
1620s +, they were the ones that came to the Hurons for the missionary work. First Nations
encountered with different christainties. Struggled to comprehend there world views, etc.
encounters were usually brief, there was trade and violence, this changed around 1600s to
establish a 1602-1604 a french colony on Island where settlers rebelled and killed their leaders,
another in a river. May 1604 large expectation arrived in NS area known as “Acadia” centered
by St. Lawrence on the North and
Establishment of New France
This voyage of 1604 was Pierre Du Gua de Monts
Samuel de Champlain (1570-1635), wanted to establish a colony, settled in port royal 1605 from
this time on french would have a foothold in Acadia, winter were “order of good cheer” dining
club with responsibilities for musical entertainment. How the upper class men resided. Port
1608 sailed up the St. Lawrence river to Quebec in 1609, the french had mapped in detail the
water ways, quebec was chosen for its heights and that the river narrowed. Quebec would be a
harsh winter, Champlain had to put down a conspiracy amongst his men while surviving Scurvy,
first nations provide to the cure for scurvy. Champlain fights the Iroquois, only a few of Europeans but the smoke and noise from the guns
they proved to be scary for the natives. Joined Algon allies and went to fight the major power in
the region of the Iroq, Champlain had allied with those in the north, alliance with Algonn helped
voyages in land, 1610 young french men Brule, to live with the Algon wit the exchange of young
huron to be adopted and learn the culture. Only 50 french men by 1615 in Quebec but he used
the St. Lawrence to go west, 1615 went into the interior, was looking to plant a colony for fertile
land. At the mouth of the French river, “high hairs” a native group. Champlain travelled and
traded until he reached the homeland of the Huron. Marriages between long houses were young
men moving into their wives houses. Long house has a series of fires, you could extend the
longhouse. Champlain perspective the home land of Huron had no prior contact. 1630s though
there population fell.
Champlain secured an alliance with the Huron, french traded for furs and gave metal clocks but
didn’t trade guns.
Establishes amicable relationship with Algonqian speaking people
Established Quebec in 1908, mapped lake Huron, Georgian Bay and Lake Ontario,
1618 became a direct colonial promoter, securing assistance of the French Crown (finance).
Faced short progress, asked missionaries to come for assistance. Requested french families and
french soliders to come. Not until later got assistance from french crown, turned to promote inter
marriages of french man and native women, french and first nations of two people and become
one. This encouraging inter marriage set him apart in colonializing. Other colonies didn’t tend to
promote inter marriage.
1627 Cardinal Richelieu: came over to oversea the development of New France, pooled capital
to invest in the settlement. Invest in New France in hope to get return. 1628: for ships containing
four people, of workmen, flet was capitured by the Kirke Brothers the flet france to bring the aid
for the colony. 1629 Kirk Brothers and turned to Quebec City, 1629 had forced Quebec to
surrender, French lost Quebec, didn’t get it back for 3 years. Highlighted the vulnerability, led
Champlain to promote missionaries, merchants and immigrants to make it more susitanable.
Started Permanent Missions in Huronia 1634
Jean de Brebeuf: moved to Huronia to pursue christanity. Hurons suffered population decline by
introduction of fur traders and Jesuits, five years after they arrived, they saw the construction.
Had a canal, lots of construction. Basic concepts of Christanity proved problematic to Jesuits, Huron saw them preforming the ceremony on the dying, some of the Huron attributes the death
to their influence. 1640s large amount of conversion, but more due to the mounting death toll
affecting it. in response to the crisis created. Only christains could have mosquets, splitted the
huron society into christains and natives, internally of christains vs. traditionalist. Jesuits were
suspicious no drinking, women, robes.
The crippling affect of the diseases, the disease and division crippled the hurons ability to
When faced with an attack in 1649, the demographically divided Huron proved no match, city
was attacked and burned with most inhabitants killed and forced into the Iroq. Of the huron who
managed to escape died. New France lost their western ally, retain their Alqon but now New
France would face a renewed military Iroq confederacy.
Royal Takeover & Consolidation of New France May 22
1. Becoming a Royal Colony
1629 Quebec was captured by the brothers, how tentative the foothold was before 1650. Conflict
with Iroq shake the period, French were attacked in south in Fort Richelieu, abandoned in 1640
(quebec). Huronia and Ste Marie aux Hurons destroyed in 1649. New France was identified by
its agriculture (cotton and tobacco) they lacked cash crops, the only substitute was fur from the
fur trade. They had to journey inland, the Huron had dislocated from their homeland so the
French traded with the Jibwa, during this period and pursuit of fur trade the French were fearful
of the Iroq and there raids, they could disrupt their ship patterns. The fur trade was open to
capture by the Iroq until 1666, where 12,000 french soliders attacked the Mohawk, they suffered
a lot but did a lot of damage, burned food supplies and caused a lot of damage to the Iroq
confederancy. Signed a peace treaty after 1666 (French did strike back and obtained 20 yrs of
Louis the 14 came to power, as 5 year old in 1661. Advisors ran it, absolutism: centralization of
legal, military and economic power. Had to address the growing strength of the Dutch and the
English. While the Monarchs of Europe had seen the power increase, Absolutism was the way to
counter this. This policy of absolutism led to a number of developments in the French States,
built “Versailles” the palace, dubbed himself the “sun king” came after he dressed up a play,
made everything revolve around him. Devoted Catholic, used state to promote catholic around
St. Lawrence: Becoming a royal economy 1663-67
Establishment of a colonial admiration in the St. Lawrence, put French administers policy in two
men: the governor, and the intendant: Jean Talon. Governor: military man from aristocracy, Jean Colbert, represented the king in the province of
New France, military affairs, external relations, control of the colony connection with the church.
Responsible with first nations alliances. Colbert: one of Louis 14 top bureaucrats, job to expand
the French colony in the St. Lawrence. Colbert’s position to implement the policies in the
1665: First Intendant Jean Talon, centralizes the administration of the colony, intendant is the top
administration & civil servant, handles routine administration. Class: intendant was middle class,
career civil servant origin. Creation of these positions create tensions, of how to run the colony
of New France. 1667: New France is official colony of France, its like a province of France
governed centrally from Paris/Versailles.
Colbert initially saw the colony has compact colony (not extended to Huronia, consolidate the St.
Lawrence). New France needed to be less dependent on fur trade, alliances to the west and focus
more on the St. Lawrence. He promoted immigration & industrialization to fill this.
Set the stage the administration structure that would last the next century.
Society had no newspaper, New France was quite difference from New England in the south,
which had a flourishing culture. New Administered apparatus, “playing card money” intendant
implemented in 1685, way to address that their wasn’t enough money, they would import the
currency it would disappear, used playing cards & signed the card and taken as the kings promise
to be used as money. Felt this was a necessary step.
Military Presence: military society, 1669 + required the male population to serve in the militia
(16-60 age). Special role of warfare: often the accompanying force of First Nations groups,
small scale raiding companies that were intended to keep the English colonies in fear, preventing
them from using their superior numbers against the French. The Habitant militia found small
scale fighting worked better with the land scale.
Regular troops stationed in the towns, while Habitant were around the farms (two types of
soliders) military society,
Demographic & Population Growth
After 1660, French in the St. Lawrence matched the growth of the French colonies, the
population doubles every 25 yrs, but couldn’t keep the pace, it had limited immigration
Immigration to New France
Before 1608-49, few hundred immigrants, major change occurred in 1650s, 1660s see the jump
in immigration (1660-69 1698). The population comes to the St. Lawrence. Very little women
compared to men, “Filles du Roi” daughters of the king, getting state patronage to come, Monarchy in France organized ships to take women to New France to populate the colony. In
total 800 women between 1663-1673, tended to be commoners, many were orphans from state
institutions in Paris, sent and had small choice of who to marry. Only 70 returned. Like most of
the population, most were from Paris, Normandy and western regions like Britain. Various
incentives, soliders that served in New France got land grants to encourage them to stay, source
of population & money, paycheck if their living their they will spend it there (demographically +
financially important to the colony). There were incentives given to populate & pro create, more
than 10 children got a bonus, taxed if you were single. Immigration dropped after 1673 after the
active program, until 1750 where war far threatens.
Why is so hard to get immigrants? 1) Harsh climate, seven months of winter, encouraged a lot of
people to go back. 2) Few commodities, tough place to live, 3) Jesuit relations, wrote these
annual relations, that were biased, portrayed aboriginals as hostile wilderness, invading Iroq,
battles were featured in the stories.
Lack of push factors in France itself: didn’t have the location like the British isles had, French
military had a big demand for peasants, reluctant to let people go, if you were poor they wanted
you to be enlisted, not shipped to New France.
Comparison: 1750 New France 20,000/ English Colonies over 400,000 1754: 70,000 in New
France, 1.5 million in English Colonies.
2. Acadia & Newfoundland
Acadia: ungoverned (New France was a royal colony) continued to be fought over French &
English, switched ten times until 1750s. while the population was overwhelmingly French, left it
administered limbo, one period when England controlled 1664-67, because English had control,
Acadia was forgotten about. It maintained an unofficial status which was never properly
governed. Not a lot of connection, Acadians established good relations between the MicMaq,
followed a policy of neutrality between France & English controlling them. Pursued a policy of
not committing to one power, in fear they would be traded to the other. Didn’t receive a bishop,
only occasional priests. Acadia flourished agriculturally, had a way of farming by pushing the
sea back with dikes, built them by hand.
Agriculture: built dikes to have a successful,
Developed independently, most important was the cod fishery, settlement on the coast. During
this period only few ships would take furs back, where 400 + per year were fishing off the banks
of NFLD. The settlements tended to occur along the costs
3. Colonial Administration in Canada (St. Lawrence) Paris in 1665 was the custom of Paris. People are guilty until proven innocence, judges could
order torture to get a confession. Three basic categories of crime: a) crimes against god:
blastfulmie, sorcery b) crimes against the king: treason, desertion c) crimes against people:
violence & theft. Importance at the time that was given to god, own category in this code, Three
categories Punishment: 1) monetary fined from Paris 2) humiliation: public, the stacks 3) death:
public, hung in front of the church. Not imposed on first nations, left to govern their own affairs,
not subject to these legal codes.
Religious Establishment of New France:
Church & state worked closely, Church provided faith, and social services (basic education &
healthcare). The church and state were not separate, church was preaching submission and
obedience to the secular authorities. Bishop de Laval: appointed priests to come to New France,
the state dominated the church in the St. Lawrence. But Canada was born as a catholic nation,
France was only sending “good” Catholics, protestants didn’t come in great numbers, French
protestants tended to migrate to the English colonies.
Land Settlement along St. Lawrence.
Oriented towards the river, farm houses towards the river, river was the transportation route and
the route resources came/went through the farmland.
Seigniorial System: nothing to do with the shape of land, it’s the relationship of the farmer to the
land, the farmer didn’t own the land, he was a tenant, he would farm the land and local lord
would collect rents and dues from the farmers who were working his land. The seigniorial
system is about reinforcing social hierarchy, farmers pay dues from their produce to the local
lord. The senior has responsibilities, provide a mill, farmers do the farming, and the mill is
provided to create the grain. The lord is to protect the habitat, if your land has trouble go to the
lord. Not a lot of money taken, this was more a settlement; textbook says not exploiting the
peasants. But others think it takes a significant amount of the farmer’s money, to prevent them
from reinvesting in their land. There were some dues but still questionable how much. Feudal
system planted into the St. Lawrence, copying the France feudal system. Didn’t encourage large
scale farming like family farms.
4. War & Peace
War of the League of Augsburg (1689-97)
A lot of warfare at this time, initially in europe spills into colonies, settled by the treaty of
Great Peace of 1701: other treaties signed in Europe, great peace held in Montreal, 1701 the
French invited first nation people to form a regional peace, in many ways it was to finally make peace with the Iroq confederacy and European allies (first nations). Iroq remained neutral to
france and their allies who agreed to not attack the Iroq, lasted a decade through 1701.
War of the Spanish Sucession 1702-13 settled by the Trety of Utrecht
Consequences: gave Acadia to the British, after treaty it becomes English. 14 colony, doesn’t
rebel in the American revolution. Treaty of Utrecht marked 30 yrs of peace of French & English,
golden age of New France.
1. Westward Expansion & Fur trade: expansion of New France through the Fur Trade, this was
the cash crop of the colony, fur trade implicated in the western expansion.
Fur trade: alliance relationship for the trade to occur,
Coureurs des bois (runners of the woods) French Canadian canoo men who go into the interior,
carried weights on their backs
Anishinaabeg (Algonquian speaking) allies: new france expanded relied on the algon as guides.
Push trades west, beginning of the metis of blending of French and indingeious customes. Fur
trade leads to competing territiroial claims.
De Lusson ceremony at Sault Ste. Marie in 1672: sends de lusson to great lakes, and claims it for
france, invited local first nation groups to the ceremony,
Joliet & Marquette: explored west of the great lakes, in competition with England, response to
what England was doing. Hudsons bay was established two years before they went, trying to
grasp the fur trade
Hudsons Bay Company established in 1670: granted from royal charter from England, calls it
ruperts land roughly rivers that flow into hudsons bay.
De La Salle explores Mississippi in 1682: connects the two French colonies, sails into the st
Lawrence, goes down to new Orleans, connected the two French colonies 200 to 1000 annually
in mid 1700s, large man power from the colony. Fur trade: boom & bust cycle. The fur trade was
profitable, 1700 not doing well, profitable by mid 1700s, New France had to maintain alliances
even when it wasn’t profitable. Fur trade manifested important role in colony, attempts to
industrialize new france
Shipyard @ Quebec: starts building ships in Quebec, access to lots of lumber, difficulty finding
iron. Price of labor was high, Iron Forges of St-Maurice: constructed in 1730s, did survive some years generally taken as a
failure. Both failures: the cost of operating was too much, price of labor to high, resources were
to hard to obtain. Only real successes was the beer.
Mercantilism: Raw goods manufactures: exchanging raw goods from colonies (timber, fur,
fish) that shipped to mother country and manufactured (knives, kettles, shirts, blankets traded
back). Colony -> mother colony. Don’t want your ships to be captured, didn’t want the new
England piracy catch them, special measures, relationship between colony and mother country.
2. Society & culture:
Slavery: African slaves that established from 1680s, these slaves tended to work in urban settings
as domestic servants, cash crops were not manifested in the st. Lawrence, didn’t grow tabacoo,
used different types of slavery in New France.
2/3 slaves were First Nation peoples, often traded from first nation allies, certain laws
retristricted what you culd do with the slaves. Limits on what slave owners could do, couldn’t
punish your slave without legal approval. Limited the harsh measures,
Urban/Rural divide: society was dominantly rural, but some buildings in quebec and montreal,
churchs in towns along st Lawrence and kind of disease enviiornemnt started with open sewers,
pigs life expectancy was low because of sanitary concerns. By 1737, road constructed, took 9
days to travel from quebec to montreal. Development, first nations came to settle along the st
Huron-Wendat at Lorette
Wabanaki at St. Francois
Kanasatake (Oka) & Kahnawake (sault st. Louis)
Did this for catholic instruction, priests in these settlements administrating services to the people,
one of main reasons of luring them,
Women: Marie Charlotte: ran businesses in new france, Margarite Bourgious: founder religious
order of noter dame. Higher death for women in child birth, couples had 15-20 yrs together
before one died, society partiarcial limited property rights for women.
Habitants Culture: looked distinct, militia men more peasants with muskets, could hunt a way
peasants could not. St Lawrence more freedom emerging in the society of New France, not only
did they adapt but they tapped maple syrup,
3. Louisbourg & Acadia: Acadian agriculture: saltmarsh haying, Acadian trades, while Britain had taken over acadia,
france retained cape Breton and built Louisbourg, one of the biggest military outposts, built it for
naval base to protect the mouth of the river, to threaten the st Lawrence river, 1750s increased to
3500, some 2000 administrators and habitants, quite a major place.
Increasing suspicious during this period, really concerned they were supplying it. Louisburg:
major French output, after French lost Louisburg, got it back during the 7 years war, set the
british against the French, demanded the Acadians sign an oath to the British crown, didn’t want
to commit to any power, 1755: Acadian deputies had to sign unconditional alligence, oath
refused to be offered thought they wouldn’t mean it, 6000 acadians round up in explusion of the
Acadians transported by ships to southern colonies, not a lot of resistance, a lot fled, didn’t
mount a concerning people. Occurres conincides with the seven years war.
May 27 HIS- St. George
The Clash of Empires: Seven Years War (French & Indian war)
Correction: Colbert was not the governor, he was a minister under the marine.
The long peace:
Starting after 1713, treaty peace to New France but put Acadia in vulnerable position, became
under the control of the British, 1660 became a royal colony, got a lot of population, the same
time they tried to work on industrial developments though didn’t take off (during the fur trade
where the French went inland and made alliances).
Explusion of the Acadians: wasn’t a separate phenomena, partial to seven years war.
6,000 expelled in 1755 & 1758. The first one is a response to the British defeat. Many Acadians
died in the ships, dispersed along the American places. A lot of people made their way back up,
often settled in lands that were not settled because there land had been taken.
War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48): starts when Charles the six (holy roman empire) dies
and Maria Teresa becomes the new leader, war coincided with tension in north America. The
Atlantic colonies erupted into two wars, “King George’s war” was the one in France N.A (1744-
48). When New England fought with France in the Atlantic, capture of Louisbourgh 1745-8
War for Jenkins Ear (1739-1748) war with the English colonies and Spanish,
The English were successful during these,
1745 capture was traded back to the French, which hurt the European colonies, captured it and
now had to given back to the French. The capture of Louisbourg helped firm the result of Acadians, they were caught defending the forts directly, were part of the struggle directly. The
forts relied on the networks, even though they had forts far inland they needed the Atlantic sea.
Two warfare ships: Frigate: one thck of guns, but they are fast and moveable. Ships of the Line:
two or more decks of guns. 18 century the more weight it could throw, the better it could do it
in a battle. Small ships began with fifty guns, large had one hundred +.
British Soliders: bright red coats, had specialized units within the army. French units:
Music as discipline: 18 century functional, commanding officers orders were drummed out,
bands would play marches. There often served as rallying the troops together.
Formations: the mechanics of the musket, basic principle that one shot needs a long reloading
process. First Nation warriors used muskets, but fired once and rushed into hand to hnnd combat.
7 year war: Struggle for the Ohio battle
Pierre Joseph Celeron de Blainville, barried French tablets, French built military posts in the area
to assert control. 1753 George Washington was sent by the British claiming the ohio valley for
the British. The British governor of Virginia sent Washington to expel the French. George
Washington found Joseph Coulon de Villiers de Jumonville, with his 30 forces to see if the
british had breached the territory, they were slaughtered. French responded by sending a large
force, forces them to surrender.
General Edward Braddock: in response to the encounter the English sent two groups to force him
to surrender. He was ambushed near the fort, 450 were killed, 400 were wounded, French and
Canadians only had a dozen killed.
Louis-Joseph de Montcalm: battle of Fort Oswego 1756, Battle of Fort William Henry 1757:
south end of lake champlain, the 2000 or so men in the fort surrendered Battle of Carillon
Ticonderoga 1758: defeated a superior English force of 16000, French were defending the
Carillon and the British were marching on it, the French succeeded in defending it. it was the
bloodest battle, Abercrombie a british leader didn’t wait for the artilary, didn’t follow the
standards. proved himself in first two years,were all French victories during this war. the French
took 1700 prisoners. This was the one English fort.
First nation allies played an on going role, raided the new England colonies by doing flash
attacks, taking captives, burning farms etc. A lot of French officers didn’t like it, argued against
this wafare. The superiority of the English made this necessary.
The First Nation islands never had great numbers after 1757, seven years war the English gained
the Atlantic. British had control of the shipping from 1758 until its over. 1758 change in the
Crop failure 1758: famine when the French cant get ships. Discourse between the two figures Governor General of New France in 1755: Pierre Vaudreuil, frequently in conflict with
Montcalm. He wanted to use First Nation allies & French Canadian militia in small-scale raids
along the frontier, supported a more widespread defense. Two individuals got more hostile as
years went on, Montalm concentrated a more condensed French forces. This internal division
weakened the French up until the british were sailing.
Quebec: the encounter saw the biggest military forces, winter of 1758-9, about 8,000 troops and
thirteen thousand sailors gathered in the harbor, six days to leave the harbor. On June 27, general
wolf landed on Quebec. Wolfe was a major by 18, lieutenant by 23, military man rapidly rose in
the ranks. Led to british forces into the St. Lawrence
Anse au Foulon: tried to land but shut out of the land, internal divisions within the English, wolfe
didn’t get along with his chief, end of summer looked bad for the English if they were going to
succeed. Final attempt to land in quebec city to find a path known as “Anse au Foulon” French
still held a superior position, the French was control of the Fortier.
Plains of Abraham: sent forces to confront wolfe and the british, 3000 french reinforcements he
could have waited for, but didn’t! Battle of Plains of Abraham resembled an European battle.
Both were wounded, Wolfe died, English had gained control of Quebec, still threatening French
armies, the next year after the St. Lawrence has the British sail through.treaty of paris 1763 ends
Canada was governed by French military, some departed for France, English merchants started
arriving in the St. Lawrence.
Britain took Florida and gave Cuba to the Spanish. The Acadia was being repopulated by New
Englanders, many left found less local democracy, were given smaller pots of lands.
May 29 : Aftermath of Conquest 1763-1774/ Loyalty & the American Revolution
Seven Years War
Britain: 6 million, 1.5 million in colonies, 130 ships of the line, 27,000 troops, 18,00 militia and
$10 spent fighting for American colonies
France: 22 million people, 70,000 in New France, 57 ships of the line, 6,700 troops, 2,800 militia
$1 spent fighting for American colonies.
Strong effort of France military effort, the French Canadian militia and New France’s allies.
Gorilla and raiding tactics contributed a lot to their successes, and especially the militia success.
First Nation warriors terrified British & American soldiers. The English had small numbers of
first nation warriors to their side, those they secured were through William Johnson who
represented the Iroq. Approaching the wars end, they had to take out the western forts in the
Great Lakes. After the Acadian Expulsion:
New population, mostly Americans or “Planters” who came from New England as farmers. They
were given some land from the government who gave large spots to British military officials.
Treaty of Paris: officially ended the War, saw France lose its north American empire, it did
retain islands in the Atlantic but lost the continent base. France was more concerned about
fisheries than retaining Canada, didn’t try to negotiate the St. Lawrence. In France public support
had declined to keep the colony.
Royal Proclamation: after the peace treaty the British passed this as a response to their new
colonial acquisition, this was an order in council that came from the highest levels of
government, provided instructions of new colonies to come into British North America. It
affected Florida, the St Lawrence & this is seen as important moment for British Empire
accounts for their military advances. Governors are granted to Florida & Canada, and get elected
assemblies, but only Protestants could vote or sit in the assembly, the royal proclamation was for
the wave of settlers there would be British institutions ready on the ground. The laws
discriminating Catholics were not extended to Quebec; it was more tolerant than expected
especially after the expulsions in Acadia. The proclamation line was an order and attempt to
bring peace to the back country for an area of the natives. British officials didn’t want to enforce
the proclamation line. Quebec was not flooded by immigrants as expected; New Englanders
could have been deterred by Roman Catholic speakers, religion and the seigneur system. Most
Pontiac’s Rebellion: A major revolt by first nation people in the great lakes against British
authority. It was the product of inter-tribal agreement to oust the British from the interior, they
were not happy with the colonial master. The nations agreed to continue the war and try to force
the British out of the Great lakes, 8 forts fell. After 1763 the war ended in 64 with treaty of
Niagara, William Johnson signed the peace treaty.
Irish born, came from old English background. He moved to upper New York with money and
located himself between Iroq & New England colonies. He acted as mediator and became the
British Superintendant of Indian Affairs from 1758 to 1774. Colonial representation of First
Nation people, negotiated Treaty of Niagara in 1764, ending the rebellion. Invited the Algon
people by sending out wompa belts, part of First Nation diplomacy. Conducted councils and
diplomatic negotiations from his estate near the Mohawk river, known as Johnson Hall. Thought
to cohabitate many First Nation women and molly brant had 8 children with her. Her brother was
a Mohawk leader, the influence of Johnson had the Mohawk allied with the British to protect
themselves from the Americans. Jeffrey Amherst: Small pox
Led armies during the seven year war, after the war saw it as British conquest and demanded the
segeration of First Nation people. He was promoted to governor general of BNA 1760-63,
promote to Major General in 1760. He attempted to eliminate the European and First Nation
relations (ceremonial requirements, gifts) the tools Johnson thought would strengthen the
relationship. He pointed to the war atrocery, the frontier raids and 1763 the pontaic rebellion for
the hatred of first nations. Questionable is he responsible for giving small pox to First Nations.
Giving gifts of contaminated blankets to the First Nations, it was before an order Amherst gave.
A letter Amherst wrote to officer Bouquest in1763, talking about blankets. But he was not
unique a lot thought this.
Governor James Murray
Commanded a battalion at Lousbourg in 1758, fought under General Wolfe in 1759. Military
governor of Quebec 1760-64. Rewarded for his military service during the war, his
administration of Quebec was military rule with a soft touch. He passed restrictions on British
soldiers wouldn’t rape women, and general policy as long as church was cooperative with the
government he would leave the Catholic Church alone. During his administration a few issues
arose, the first problem was a new bishop was required for all the Roman Catholics, the last
bishop had died. Who chooses the new bishop thought it was outrageous Rome & Pope would
choose bishop, they thought king of England should do this. Murray tried to hand pick the bishop
but didn’t please either side, too little for the French who didn’t want him to pick them. Bishop
Brienne came in as super intendant in the church, but was accepted as the active bishop. Murray
had taken a liking to French Canadian but angered protestant merchants who complained in
England and was recalled due to the complaints. Served as the governor general o Quebec 1764-
68. He angered to new England merchants in the St. Lawrence and gets recalled.
New governor after Murray recalled, he was firm believer in tenants and aristocracy, believed
their should be close connection with church & state. Vision not far from old regime, now
English men on the top but same social structure of French men. Like murray, Carleton got tiered
of English merchants and started feuding with them in the St. Lawrence. He favoured an alliance
with French land owners & seniors and catholic church. Protestant anglo-irsh solider and
administrator. Class played a role, had more in come with land owners and perfured them to the
vulgar middle class merchants. Murray and Carleton both spoke French. Governor General of the
Province of Quebec 1768 1778. Carleton was in control when Quebec Act was passed in 1774.
Quebec Act of 1774:
Second act, restored previous status quo before conquest. While the royal proclamation was a
response to local conditions, the Quebec Act was an active draft that was proposed to the lack of English speakers in the St. Lawrence. French didn’t want to speak English; Roman Catholics
were granted religious protection. The elected assembly was abolished, French civil law was re-
introduced, English criminal law remained in place. Seigniorial system reinforced. After this act
an appointed council to help governor draft its policies. Quebec act enraged the English
merchants but they did like that British laws were extended through the great lakes. They were
allowed customary dues and rights for catholics but all matters relating to property and civil
rights were laws of traditional Canada, prevented more English coming. The quebec act was seen
by many as intolerable acts, contributing to the American revolution, passed by British colonies
to punish them. While it was not meant to aggravate Americans, it did.
Rebellion/ Revolution Brewing
Rebellion vs. revolution: revolutions succeed, rebellions don’t.
Series of acts were passed to increase taxes on the American colonies due to the British debt in
defending the north American colonies. They tried through these acts
Sugar act: tax sugar & coffee
Stamp Act: raised taxes on printed page
Quartering Act: required colonial governments to pay for British troops stationed in a colony
Tea Act: raised the price of tea in American colonies
Quebec Act: seen as final intolerable act which protected Roman Catholics and restricted the
expansion in the frontier
By 1765 sons of liberty were harassing tax collectors, tensions rose by 1770 when british troops
fired into a protest. 1773 American patriots dumped three ships of British cargo into the sea, full
of tea. Symbolic act by late 18 century british had been associated with tea due to the Indian
American Revolution: 1775-1783
British in response put military rule on the colonies. April 1775 after British troops were fired on
when they were raiding a depo. This would start in Ernest. Moved quickly to organize an
alternative government to the British government and to raise an army under George
Washington. The second continental congress authorized the invasion of Quebec to strike British
power. Quebec seen as fesible target than Halifax