May 27 HIS- St. George
The Clash of Empires: Seven Years War (French & Indian war)
Correction: Colbert was not the governor, he was a minister under the marine.
The long peace:
Starting after 1713, treaty peace to New France but put Acadia in vulnerable position, became
under the control of the British, 1660 became a royal colony, got a lot of population, the same
time they tried to work on industrial developments though didn’t take off (during the fur trade
where the French went inland and made alliances).
Explusion of the Acadians: wasn’t a separate phenomena, partial to seven years war.
6,000 expelled in 1755 & 1758. The first one is a response to the British defeat. Many Acadians
died in the ships, dispersed along the American places. A lot of people made their way back up,
often settled in lands that were not settled because there land had been taken.
War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48): starts when Charles the six (holy roman empire) dies
and Maria Teresa becomes the new leader, war coincided with tension in north America. The
Atlantic colonies erupted into two wars, “King George’s war” was the one in France N.A (1744-
48). When New England fought with France in the Atlantic, capture of Louisbourgh 1745-8
War for Jenkins Ear (1739-1748) war with the English colonies and Spanish,
The English were successful during these,
1745 capture was traded back to the French, which hurt the European colonies, captured it and
now had to given back to the French. The capture of Louisbourg helped firm the result of
Acadians, they were caught defending the forts directly, were part of the struggle directly. The
forts relied on the networks, even though they had forts far inland they needed the Atlantic sea.
Two warfare ships: Frigate: one deck of guns, but they are fast and moveable. Ships of the Line:
two or more decks of guns. 18 century the more weight it could throw, the better it could do it
in a battle. Small ships began with fifty guns, large had one hundred +.
British Soliders: bright red coats, had specialized units within the army. French units:
Music as discipline: 18 century functional, commanding officers orders were drummed out,
bands would play marches. There often served as rallying the troops together.
Formations: the mechanics of the musket, basic principle that one shot needs a long reloading
process. First Nation warriors used muskets, but fired once and rushed into hand to hnnd combat. 7 year war: Struggle for the Ohio battle
Pierre Joseph Celeron de Blainville, barried French tablets, French built military posts in the area
to assert control. 1753 George Washington was sent by the British claiming the ohio valley for
the British. The British governor of Virginia sent Washington to expel the French. George
Washington found Joseph Coulon de Villiers de Jumonville, with his 30 forces to see if the
british had breached the territory, they were slaughtered. French responded by sending a large
force, forces them to surrender.
General Edward Braddock: in response to the encounter the English sent two groups to force him
to surrender. He was ambushed near the fort, 450 were killed, 400 were wounded, French and
Canadians only had a dozen killed.
Louis-Joseph de Montcalm: battle of Fort Oswego 1756, Battle of Fort William Henry 1757:
south end of lake champlain, the 2000 or so men in the fort surrendered Battle of Carillon
Ticonderoga 1758: defeated a superior English force of 16000, French were defending the
Carillon and the British were marching on it, the French succeeded in defending it. it was the
bloodest battle, Abercrombie a british leader didn’t wait for the artilary, didn’t follow the
standards. proved himself in first two years,were all French victories during this war. the French
took 1700 prisoners. This was the one English fort.
First nation allies played an on going role, raided the new England colonies by doing flash
attacks, taking captives, burning farms etc. A lot of French officers didn’t like it, argued against
this wafare. The superiority of the English made this necessary.
The First Nation islands never had great numbers after 1757, seven years war the English gained
the Atlantic. British had control of the shipping from 1758 until its over. 1758 change in the
Crop failure 1758: famine when the French cant get ships. Discourse between the two figures
Governor General of New France in 1755: Pierre Vaudreuil, frequently in conflict with
Montcalm. He wanted to use First Nation allies & French Canadian militia in small-scale raids
along the frontier, supported a more widespread defense. Two individuals got more hostile as
years went on, Montalm concentrated a more condensed French forces. This internal division
weakened the French up until the british were sailing.
Quebec: the encounter saw the biggest military forces, winter of 1758-9, about 8,000 troops and
thirteen thousand sailors gathered in the harbor, six days to leave the harbor. On June 27, general
wolf landed on Quebec. Wolfe was a major by 18, lieutenant by 23, military man rapidly rose in
the ranks. Led to british forces into the St. Lawrence
Anse au Foulon: tried to land but shut out of the land, internal divisions within the English, wolfe
didn’t get along with his chief, end of summer looked bad for the English if they were going to succeed. Final attempt to land in quebec city to find a path known as “Anse au Foulon” French
still held a superior position, the French was control of the Fortier.
Plains of Abraham: sent forces to confront wolfe and the british, 3000 french reinforcements he
could have waited for, but didn’t! Battle of Plains of Abraham resembled an European battle.
Both were wounded, Wolfe died, English had gained control of Quebec, still threatening French
armies, the next year after the St. Lawrence has the British sail through.treaty of paris 1763 ends
Canada was governed by French military, some departed for France, English merchants started
arriving in the St. Lawrence.
Britain took Florida and gave Cuba to the Spanish. The Acadia was being repopulated by New
Englanders, many left found less local democracy, were given smaller pots of lands.
May 29 : Aftermath of Conquest 1763-1774/ Loyalty & the American Revolution
Seven Years War
Britain: 6 million, 1.5 million in colonies, 130 ships of the line, 27,000 troops, 18,00 militia and
$10 spent fighting for American colonies
France: 22 million people, 70,000 in New France, 57 ships of the line, 6,700 troops, 2,800 militia
$1 spent fighting for American colonies.
Strong effort of France military effort, the French Canadian militia and New France’s allies.
Gorilla and raiding tactics contributed a lot to their successes, and especially the militia success.
First Nation warriors terrified British & American soldiers. The English had small numbers of
first nation warriors to their side, those they secured were through William Johnson who
represented the Iroq. Approaching the wars end, they had to take out the western forts in the
After the Acadian Expulsion:
New population, mostly Americans or “Planters” who came from New England as farmers. They
were given some land from the government who gave large spots to British military officials.
Treaty of Paris: officially ended the War, saw France lose its north American empire, it did
retain islands in the Atlantic but lost the continent base. France was more concerned about
fisheries than retaining Canada, didn’t try to negotiate the St. Lawrence. In France public support
had declined to keep the colony. Royal Proclamation: after the peace treaty the British passed this as a response to their new
colonial acquisition, this was an order in council that came from the highest levels of
government, provided instructions of new colonies to come into British North America. It
affected Florida, the St Lawrence & this is seen as important moment for British Empire
accounts for their military advances. Governors are granted to Florida & Canada, and get elected
assemblies, but only Protestants could vote or sit in the assembly, the royal proclamation was for
the wave of settlers there would be British institutions ready on the ground. The laws
discriminating Catholics were not extended to Quebec; it was more tolerant than expected
especially after the expulsions in Acadia. The proclamation line was an order and attempt to
bring peace to the back country for an area of the natives. British officials didn’t want to enforce
the proclamation line. Quebec was not flooded by immigrants as expected; New Englanders
could have been deterred by Roman Catholic speakers, religion and the seigneur system. Most
Pontiac’s Rebellion: A major revolt by first nation people in the great lakes against British
authority. It was the product of inter-tribal agreement to oust the British from the interior, they
were not happy with the colonial master. The nations agreed to continue the war and try to force
the British out of the Great lakes, 8 forts fell. After 1763 the war ended in 64 with treaty of
Niagara, William Johnson signed the peace treaty.
Irish born, came from old English background. He moved to upper New York with money and
located himself between Iroq & New England colonies. He acted as mediator and became the
British Superintendant of Indian Affairs from 1758 to 1774. Colonial representation of First
Nation people, negotiated Treaty of Niagara in 1764, ending the rebellion. Invited the Algon
people by sending out wompa belts, part of First Nation diplomacy. Conducted councils and
diplomatic negotiations from his estate near the Mohawk river, known as Johnson Hall. Thought
to cohabitate many First Nation women and molly brant had 8 children with her. Her brother was
a Mohawk leader, the influence of Johnson had the Mohawk allied with the British to protect
themselves from the Americans.
Jeffrey Amherst: Small pox
Led armies during the seven year war, after the war saw it as British conquest and demanded the
segeration of First Nation people. He was promoted to governor general of BNA 1760-63,
promote to Major General in 1760. He attempted to eliminate the European and First Nation
relations (ceremonial requirements, gifts) the tools Johnson thought would strengthen the
relationship. He pointed to the war atrocery, the frontier raids and 1763 the pontaic rebellion for
the hatred of first nations. Questionable is he responsible for giving small pox to First Nations.
Giving gifts of contaminated blankets to the First Nations, it was before an order Amherst gave.
A letter Amherst wrote to officer Bouquest in1763, talking about blankets. But he was not
unique a lot thought this. Governor James Murray
Commanded a battalion at Lousbourg in 1758, fought under General Wolfe in 1759. Military
governor of Quebec 1760-64. Rewarded for his military service during the war, his
administration of Quebec was military rule with a soft touch. He passed restrictions on British
soldiers wouldn’t rape women, and general policy as long as church was cooperative with the
government he would leave the Catholic Church alone. During his administration a few issues
arose, the first problem was a new bishop was required for all the Roman Catholics, the last
bishop had died. Who chooses the new bishop thought it was outrageous Rome & Pope would
choose bishop, they thought king of England should do this. Murray tried to hand pick the bishop
but didn’t please either side, too little for the French who didn’t want him to pick them. Bishop
Brienne came in as super intendant in the church, but was accepted as the active bishop. Murray
had taken a liking to French Canadian but angered protestant merchants who complained in
England and was recalled due to the complaints. Served as the governor general o Quebec 1764-
68. He angered to new England merchants in the St. Lawrence and gets recalled.
New governor after Murray recalled, he was firm believer in tenants and aristocracy, believed
their should be close connection with church & state. Vision not far from old regime, now
English men on the top but same social structure of French men. Like murray, Carleton got tiered
of English merchants and started feuding with them in the St. Lawrence. He favoured an alliance
with French land owners & seniors and catholic church. Protestant anglo-irsh solider and
administrator. Class played a role, had more in come with land owners and perfured them to the
vulgar middle class merchants. Murray and Carleton both spoke French. Governor General of the
Province of Quebec 1768 1778. Carleton was in control when Quebec Act was passed in 1774.
Quebec Act of 1774:
Second act, restored previous status quo before conquest. While the royal proclamation was a
response to local conditions, the Quebec Act was an active draft that was proposed to the lack of
English speakers in the St. Lawrence. French didn’t want to speak English; Roman Catholics
were granted religious protection. The elected assembly was abolished, French civil law was re-
introduced, English criminal law remained in place. Seigniorial system reinforced. After this act
an appointed council to help governor draft its policies. Quebec act enraged the English
merchants but they did like that British laws were extended through the great lakes. They were
allowed customary dues and rights for catholics but all matters relating to property and civil
rights were laws of traditional Canada, prevented more English coming. The quebec act was seen
by many as intolerable acts, contributing to the American revolution, passed by British colonies
to punish them. While it was not meant to aggravate Americans, it did.
Rebellion/ Revolution Brewing Rebellion vs. revolution: revolutions succeed, rebellions don’t.
Series of acts were passed to increase taxes on the American colonies due to the British debt in
defending the north American colonies. They tried through these acts
Sugar act: tax sugar & coffee
Stamp Act: raised taxes on printed page
Quartering Act: required colonial governments to pay for British troops stationed in a colony
Tea Act: raised the price of tea in American colonies
Quebec Act: seen as final intolerable act which protected Roman Catholics and restricted the
expansion in the frontier
By 1765 sons of liberty were harassing tax collectors, tensions rose by 1770 when british troops
fired into a protest. 1773 American patriots dumped three ships of British cargo into the sea, full
of tea. Symbolic act by late 18 century british had been associated with tea due to the Indian
American Revolution: 1775-1783
British in response put military rule on the colonies. April 1775 after British troops were fired on
when they were raiding a depo. This would start in Ernest. Moved quickly to organize an
alternative government to the British government and to raise an army under George
Washington. The second continental congress authorized the invasion of Quebec to strike British
power. Quebec seen as fesible target than Halifax because that needed naval. Quebec could be
reached by foot. Americans thought they would be welcomed as liberators, thought to ignore the
American propaganda. The seniors in St. Lawrence had hard time raising militia and the French
Canadians were reluctant to join British forces to expel the Americans.
Montreal fell quickly, habitant put up little resistance a lot of French support by providing some
provisions. Idea they needed to seize Quebec and Americans thought this would be the key to
oust the British control of the St. Lawrence. The British didn’t receive the First Nation algon
speaking people, some Iroq supported the Americans. Once the Americans made it to Quebec it
was December, tried to invaded the lower town, over 300 Americans taken prisoner, forces
ended up spreading out. Americans became desperate for provisions and food. By the end of the
9 months it had turned against them, they had overstayed their welcome. British reinforcements
arrived and Americans flee. The seniors and church had stayed loyal to Britain and the popularity
decreased of Americans the winter dragged on. Carelton could have stopped the American revolution if he kept chasing but only went so far. The American civil war was local battles
between loyals and rebels. Commerce in the atlantic seaboard led to food shortages, didn’t
receive any incoming ships for years (NFLD). The Americans thought there wasn’t enough
sympathy to invade NS, it was isolated and protected by royal navy. Lots of American settlers
there, the revolution did inspire some sympathy in rural areas. The American revolution didn’t
greatly affect the fur trade, it expanded their fur trades beyond the west. 1770s British moving
into Manitoba, Saskatechewan and didn’t cut them off from the trade. Treaty of Paris ends
revolution 1783. American settlers started going into ohio valley that was restricted from them
form the proclamation line. You had people pouring into the area, while more first nations had
sided with the British, the treaty of paris had ignored them. First Nation lands in west were
transferred to the states and they got no protection. 1781/82 small pox pandemic swept the great
lakes, when they were being disposed they were dying.
Loyalist Influx 1783-86
Few years after the revolution, saw around 80,000-100,000 leaving the American colonies where
half came to Canada.30-35,000 went to Maritime provinces, only 2,000 went back to Britain.
10,000 went to Quebec & Ontario. They were welcomed with grants of free lands as
compensation of loyalty. 40-50,000 came to Canada total. Fair amount of Scottish, Irish and
Germans mixed in. This would change the Atlantic demographic, it outnumbered first nations.
Brought there values and culture to the place. They demanded full participation and democracy
and representation for their loyalty.
British had promised the slaves if they rose up they would get freedom, 3000 blacks found their
way to NS but didn’t treated well and suffered legal discrimination. They didn’t get a lot of land
only got 1 acre compared to those who got hundreds of lands. A lot of blacks when to Lyon in
Africa. First Nation people were ignored in the decision making treaty they did receive reserves
in the British colonies. The settlement in the Grande river had almost 2000 people by 1785, first
nations part of the migration north. After the treaty of Paris BNA faced readjustment, what was
formally New France, which was the base now became the primary British colony.
June 3 War of 1812
British & American war along the frontier that spanned the border between the two states. More
than 20 separate battles in war of 1812 in Canada over 2 ½ year period. American invaded York
in April of 1815, war was seen as threatening the existence of Canada. Jefferson said “taking
Canada was a mere matter of marching”. Upper Canada 80-130,000 mostly immigrants from the
US, where the Americans had millions. Americans thought this was to finish off what they
couldn’t before. It seemed a doubtful process that Britain, tied up with Napoleon could defend
such a frontier. For the Americans this was a second war for American independence, to
complete their revolution of 1776. Seen by the loyalist to maintain British sovereignty. For the first nation people their own struggle against American expansion put them on the side of the
British. War had different parties involved with different motivations.
Passed in 1791, response to the loyalist influx, established upper & lower Canada, most held by
governor and legislative council. Elected assemblies granted elected assemblies, granted them to
tax, to reduce the cost of administrating the colonies of Britain. Francophones were allowed to
vote and hold office. This ruling elite held most of the real power in the colonies with the
governor reserving the final say in legislation, it also increased the power of the governor who
used this to appoint a legislative council which were the elite. Instead of real power, they were a
breeding power of pro democratic adistation, after the constitution act Catholics were allowed to
vote after swearing a oat of allegiance.
Immigration & Settlement 1790-1812
From the British Isles: large numbers from the Scottish highlands & Ireland. Scots drawn to
Maritimes region or joined upper/lower Canada to join communities. Acadians 9000 in the
Maritimes. English immigrants started to introduce a minority in lower Canada.
Upper Canada: recent American immigrants made up 80%. American immigrants tended to
make their own institutions,
Upper Canada before 1812: John Graves Simcoe
Establish the colony, gave land grants to new comers, accepting many “late loyalists” establishes
districts, passes the act against slavery in 1793: made Upper Canada first british colony to
abolish slavery. Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada. Many were not loyalist, seeking land.
Simcoe was warry about the US, worked to settle loyalist along the border, and promoted the
idea of a first nation buffer states.
From the US: Lagely from upper New York State, Pennslyvania and New England
Loyalists settled in Upper Canada: settled near the border, Niagara, Kingston, Hamilton large
concentration of loyalist.
Britain reactionary to the American & French revolutions. In Lower Canada, a political tradition
develops= parti canadien. British supported: hierarchy, tradition and social over revolution.
Critics could be silenced and always on the look out for revolt. In lower Canada, politics were
divided along class lines, Canadian seniors and a few English officals supported French civil
law. Opposed in assembly that consisted largely of English merchants who wanted radical constitutional changes to the province. Chateau Clique:governor and ciricle of social elites &
governor who Internal Divisions, lots of plots to take back the St. Lawrence. 1794 Alien Act=
could detain without .. and crack down on political opponents. 1976 shifted around class lines to
ethnicity & language, French Canadian finally won a majority in lower Canada who favoured
reform. Found little support but now the Anglophone. Internal political tension peaked and after
the election 1810, seized printing press and jailed the leaders of the elected assembly. Put them
in jail, internal tensions right on the eve.
Upper Canada: loyalty was questioned of the late loyalist and those to attain land.
Rising tensions with the US.
1) British aggressive searching American ships, impressing American sailors: taking you against
your will, 1000s kidnapped and had to serve in royal navy. Tried to disrupt trade between French
Chesapeake Affair: two real American citizens.
Those pushing for war were the War Hawks in Congress, even though much didn’t want war.
new enland strongly objected, west supported it. Republicans Madison & Jefferson supported
war, and others pro british strongly objected. Expansionism: spoken of a god given right to the
continent “manifest destiny” because such large numbers had migrated to Canada, they wanted
to annex Canada. By declaring war in 1812, Britain may have been extremely powerful
nationally. British could attempt to strike back @ the power. Opportunism,
American Frontier Wars:
Ongoing hostilities since the American revolution, North west Indian War 1785-1795; back
country of Kentucy,
Joseph Brant: first nation who organized resistance, rallied them to the british side,
Blue Jacket: made war alliance
Confederacy of the Iroquois, Hurons, Delawares, Shawnees, Ottawas, Ojibway
Common goal keep old boundaries, proclamation line reinstate as the boundary of the settlement.
Confederancy scored victories in 1790, 91, 1794 blue jacket led 1200 warriors around the
americans. Anthony Mad Wayne 3500 men, when the americans struck a major blow.
Tecumseh: Shawnee from the ohio valley, village was burned by American armies and father
killed. Withnessed loss of tradition hunting grounds, adopted idea first nations needed to stand
together for the loss of their lands. Tecumseh didn’t like the british, met the military leader just wanted the land treaties to be fine, thought the land wars were not legitimate. Only the agreement
of all the tribes made them land claim. Attacked by Harrison at the battle of Tippecanoe in 1811.
His brother was a spiritual leader Tenskwatawa. Visioned a traditional way of living, fought for
traditional lands, his visions the Americans were children of the evil spirit. Destroyed the centre
of the confederacy.
The Americans discovered the warriors had British muskets, figured they were working with the
British. Harrison returned the US as a hero. First nations had liked the Indian department in the
British department. The British Indian department pled their support,
General Isaac Brock: exceptional swimmer and boxer, popular officer but displinary, not scared
to put down revolts, 6’2 worked to improve upper canada’s defences Wanted to secure early
victories in the west to convince both the First Nations & Upper Canadians of British power,
ability & success. Strategized swiftly taking the fight to the Americans. Brock thought the further
west you went, the weaker it was. Made strengthening the militia one of his top priorties, thought
all males 16-30 had to serve in the militias. Brock tried to strengthen the militia, raise the morale
of the militia. Brock wanted to be aggressive, strike early in far west, secured the alligance of
first nation allies, faith that they would prove major assistance.
Engagements: americans declared war on british in june 1812, Brock moved quickly. Helped
orcistrate an invasion of Mackimale island less than a month after war was declared. Took 200
soliders in more than 70 canoes and landed in the north side of the island.
With only a few hundred soliders they advanced to detriot, 600 warriors led by decumsah.
Demanded detriot surrender and could not defend a massacre to make them believe they were
not militia. British just had to set up a few cannon, 2500 americans in the fort, brock was shot
and killed well repelling an invasion.
Route the british first nation army and was killed as a result, weakened after his death.
Battles for Niagara: seven major confrontations in this region during war, battle of beaver dam in
june 1813 a large First Nations army repulses an American attack, Americans despite
outmanning the british, tended to exchange victories and were generally repelled.
Losses on the Lakes: April 27 1813, York was invaded by naval, pillaged by an American
landing force led by commodore Isaac Chauncey, American General Pike was killed. Battle of
lake erie: compet with them in the great lakes, American naval Oliver Perry wins the Battle of
Lake Eerie on Sept 10, 1813.
Eastern Engagements: two major battles that protected the St. Lawrence late October 1813, one
army was too go to lake champlain and the other along the st. Lawrence. Invaded late in the
season, American army not prepared suffered greatly. Two American commanders hated
eachother, almost 800, british regulars and Canadian militia, would repulse the American attack of frankin fire, and artillery fire. Too far back from the line of battle to make a significant
influence, generally not effective. American general struck down by musket, Americans
retreated. 230 wounded, 100 killed < americans. Americans marching up were under wade
Repelling the St. Lawrence invasion
: Battle of Chrysler’s Farm: first nation warriors, broke the will of the army, after brief
engagement and retreated.
Battle of Chateauguay:
Ending the War:
August 1814 Washington DC, bombarded and burned. Successfully bombarded Washington dc.
September of 1814 the battle of Baltimore, treaty of ghent officially ends war in December 1814,
the battle of new Orleans in janurary 1815 was one final engagement. British moved to attack
Baltimore, were not able to land a force, they did bombard it from a distance, they did protect it
from the ocean. Fort mchenury. Put the borders back before the conflict, the buffer state was
dropped by the british, which was a betrail of the first nation allies. Didn’t push for the creation
of an indian state. Peace brought a new sense of solidarity, US seem to led good feelings, upper
Canada many methology. Battle of chrsyler field, major successes of militia and loyalist
contributed to the victory, myth of Canadians repulsing the americans helped them get a pride.
Impacts of war of 1812, reinforced feeling of loyalty to the british crown, elites continued to
install fear into the post war period which existed before the war, politically not before changes.
Culturally: development of upper Canadian identity related to the victories of 1812. Myth of
loyalist were the ones that beat back the americans, militia stood up to them. First nations: clear
loser, insist the lost the peace. British didn’t insist on that territory, peace was seen as American
expansionist win, since the british afterwards would follow the policy of try to apeace the
americans on not standing up against them on border issues. Hostilities frontier wars continued
between the first nations & British.
The fur trade & the Northwest/ Atlantic Canada June 5
Primary resource industry was the bulk of economic activity. Harold Innis: “staples” who wrote
history of fur trade, developing the understanding of you can detail the economic development of
early Canada through primary resources. Innis argued the fur, fish, timber and wheat made
Canada develop the way it did. Exported to Europe, international trade and influenced the
political development. Spin off development, how the extraction of four key resources led to
linkages. Local development: linkage: fishing in ocean, meet the demand for ship building,
helped those economies, you need wood to build ship. Resource extract kept the link with Britain strong, linked through British shipping it connected
the British North American colonies strongly. 18 century British ruled the seas, after battle of
Trafalgar. Diverse of texiles came to Canada.
Grain: sown in the spring, harvested in the fall Timber: cut in winter, floated to the port in the
spring & summer. Fish: mostly in the summer, Furs was an annual cycle of trade. Summer
occurred for traveling because water wasn’t frozen. Since the days of New France, was to extend
influence in northern regions, more of a commercial venture. Initial patterns of settlement.
Hudson’s Bay Company
Founded in 1670, issues by King Charles the 2 of England, began with the royal charter.
Rupert’s land, annual meetings in London, operated posts along the shore of Hudson’s Bay. The
company had started on the recommendation on the French men. They went to the English who
found King Charles the second, who founded it, they were originally in France. Rupert’s Land:
all of the land that drained into Hudson’s Bay. HBC as a charter company had steady revenue,