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Lecture 11

HIS272 Lecture 11 - November 20, 2013

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Erin Black

November 20, 2013 Lecture 11 Crisis of the Union 1. Contextualizing Growing Sectionalism and Southern Defensiveness  1894, US sends fleet to Japan to establish trade and alliance  Japanese was reluctant, but ultimately they were wowed with what the US had on their ships and agreed to establish trades  Pistols, mini railroads, cameras, etc.  Perry’s adventure considered a success for the States  “The New Empire” by Walt Whitman  Everything in the ships was made in the North and represents the industrialist things to come, NOT the Southern interests  Had world fairs that each country would represent their awesome goods and technology  South is starting to feel that it’s being left behind as these international trade events are happening and as northerners telling southerners to start industrializing and incorporate wage labor to get to that process  Cotton’s reign starts to become challenged when it was previously very important  Southern start to want to defend their way of life  Uncle Tom’s Cabin is a book that portrays slaves in a positive light and becomes a popular book  South worries that book will have people sympathizing with anti-slavery movement 2. “Bleeding Kansas”  When governor of Kansas calls for elections to see whether slaves will be free or not, a whole bunch of people from Missouri come to vote for pro-slavery who aren’t even part of Kansas  Governor of Kansas territory realizes there’s been election fraud so he holds second election and this time there are mechanisms in place to prevent Missouri people from voting and this time, anti-slavery wins  When anti-slavery legislature tries to set itself up, it’s turned away by pro-slavery legislature that had previously been voted for  Both sides are heavily armed, and in Nov 1855 a pro-slave gets killed by abolitionist and fighting happens  Physical violence also erupts on southern floor in DC  Charles Sumner (Free-Soil Party) in May 1856 says that (The Crime Against Kansas) slavery should be abolished and ends speech that Kansas should be a free state  Preston Brooks was so outraged that he jumped up and started beating Sumner over the head with his cane on the summit floor  Brooks becomes a hero with other southerners, but northerners are not happy and call it cowardly  Fighting in Kansas triggers brawl on senate floor and it just enflames situation in Kansas itself November 20, 2013 3. The Politics of Disunion  1856 Election  Parties are divided over Kansas, that it skews the presidential election  Democrats elect James Buchanan  Republicans elect John Fremont (first national campaign) o Absorbed Free-Soil Party as well as most of Northerners from the American Party o American Party still exists though  American Party elects Millard Fillmore  Of the three parties, only Democrats can claim to be national party  Republicans are southern (care a lot about immigration)  American Party is pretty much northern (don’t care about immigration)  Buchanan vs. Fillmore in North and Buchanan vs. Fremont in South  Buchanan wins in the South and barely makes it in the North  Republicans do pretty well in their first national campaign o They only needed to win 2 more states  Sectionalism completely a reality now  Dred Scott vs. Sanford  In 1840s, Dred Scott was a slave who had been taken by his master, Sanford, into territory that was supposed to be free by his master.  Scott sues his master saying he’s now in territory that is closed to slavery  He can sue because he’s in territory that’s not a state yet so rules are more uncertain  By the time it is 1856-57, it gets to Supreme Court  Roger Taney says that Scott shouldn’t be able to sue because he’s a black o Since Scott isn’t entitled to same rights as Americans, Scott isn’t a citizen o Free blacks don’t even have same rights so they’re not US citizens  Causes uproar o Decision is that even though Scott shouldn’t have sued, he still would have ruled against Scott on the grounds that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional because it denied slavery and therefore, it impinges on slave owner’s right to property. o Slaves are property, and if they can’t take their “property” into other territories than their Fifth Amendment rights are being taken away.  Lincoln-Douglas Debates  Douglas is being challenged for his seat by Abraham Lincoln who was a Republican at the time  Senate seat had never been debated over before at that time  Douglas argues that all Republicans will go against rights of slave owners and he paints himself as the only true supporter of the Congress (?)  Lincoln believes that blacks and slaves are equal to whites  John Brown and Harpers Ferry (1830)  Brown does something that is the last straw for the South November 20, 2013  Brown attempts to lead a band of men at Harper’s ferry and busts into the arsenal and take all weapons in order to instigate a slave-uprising against slave-holders  He breaks into federal arsenal to provide slaves with weapons to attack  Brown funded by wealthy patrons and after his stint in Southwestern Ontario goes back to States  He succeeds in breaking into the army, but then federal troops ca
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