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Tong Lam

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Revolution and Change The breaking point - Centralization of power – Nationalization of the railway network - Local power – modernization, and tried to do in one hands o Always skeptical when the local gain so much power - The outcome of decentralization of China Empire o Build new political system - Wuhan uprising / Revolution of 1911 o Revolts/uprising/restoration/independence  Business people invest money for railway system  Manchu were not confident because they lost so many times  Manchu sold out the country to foreign power - The Abdication of the Qing Dynasty (1912) and The Rise of the Republic of China o Yuan Shikai (1859-1916) & His New Army The confluences of internal and external factors - Localism/decentralization - Imperialism and the ideology of Social Darwinism - Anti-Manchu sentiments/Nationalism/Racism - Internal Political divisions - Influx of Western ideas Was the Qing’s collapse inevitable? The Unfinished Revolution - Republic of China (1912 - now) o 1945 – Second unification of China - Canton (Guangzhou) - Chiang Kai-Shek (1878-1975) - Warlordism (1916-1927) [known as fail states] The China Question - Japan: Twenty-One Demands (1915) o Japan’s economic establishment o Created opportunity for Japanese o It was insulting for Chinese and make Chinese felt upset th - New imperialism (since the end of the 19 century) o Sphere of influence World War I (1914-1918) and China - Shandong Province - German May Fourth Movement (1919) - New Culture Movement (1915-1920) - Iconoclasm – Whole rejection
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