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Lecture 10

Lecture 10 - Revolution and Change.docx

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Tong Lam

Revolution and Change  1910-1920s The Breaking Point  Centralization of power – Nationalization of the railway network o The local provincial elites put down the rebellions since the central government didn’t have the power  This caused a shift in power, elites gained power  Vital in the collapse of the dynasty  Elites tried to save the empire by modernizing the industry and military, but done by their own hands  Done at a local level  Everyone built their own railways with their own standards, this prevented trains from going between areas o Needed coordination o In the final years they tried regaining power  Tried taking it from elites, even though they were trying to save the empire o The court tried centralizing the power after this decentralization  The constant attempt by local elites to have more say was constantly rejected by the court  Eventually failed  Alienated the people trying to save power  Both groups shared the same agendas, but conflicts because who wanted to rule o The Qing’s attempts to take back the railways systems  Tried to buy them from the provincial elites so they could centralize it  Provincial elites didn’t want to since their power relied on it since the Taiping rebellion, and they were the ones who started it o Started looking at the Qing (Manchu) with racist terms  Used social Darwinism against them  Manchu elites were looked down and blamed o Court needed money, local merchants were already aligned with local elites  Local merchants invested in the railways  They didn’t want to lose their investments to the court  Wuhan uprising/Revolution of 1911 o Sun Yatsen tried rebellions, but failed  Predicted there would be rebellions anyways  Before the autumn of 1911 this happened o Rebellions happened without him  The revolutionary alliance  Tried to set off a bomb, failed, caused the revolutionaries to move up dates because they were discovered  Held up the governor and made them join their because they needed a figurehead o Demanded independence o Revolts/uprising/restoration/independence  In the eyes of the provincial elites, the Manchus were no longer competent  Being seen as foreigners  Thought they were trying to sell out the country to foreign powers  One after another all the provinces declared independence  Revolution of 1911  Restoring the pride of the Han Chinese  Not that similar to the Meiji restorations o Didn’t want to return to the old ways o Provinces declared independence  The Abdication of the Qing Dynasty (1912) and the Rise of the Republic of China o Yuan Shikai (1859-1916) and his New Army  The local elites created a new army called the “New Army”  Saw the balance of power was in his hands, the New Army could be used against or with the revolutionaries o The Republic was founded in 1912, ending the Qing Empire  End of the empire was the political and military moving  All the generals were no longer working under the Qing o Tried making a pure Han Chinese state  Unrealistic  Large amount of minorities in China, it was impossible because it was already a multi ethnic nation  Saw they could build a bigger nation The confluences of internal and external factors  Localism/decentralization  Imperialism and the ideology of Social Darwinism  Anti-Manchu sentiments/Nationalism/Racism o Even though older officials tried to preserve the empire, younger people had Anti- Manchu sentiments o Young people couldn’t become officials after the imperial examinations were abolished in 1905, mind as well just join the rebellions  Internal political divisions  Influx of Western ideas o Sun Yatsen had a western education, spent a lot of his life in Hawaii  Saw alternatives to the current rule  Was the Qing’s collapse inevitable? o Was almost working, fell because of lost opportunities The Unfinished Revolution  Republic of China (1912-) o Technically still around (re-founded under the same name by the communists)  Canton (Guangzhou)  Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975)  Warlordism (1916-1927) o Not bound by provinces o Just looked out for themselves, not the empire/republic o Almost like a civil war without constant fighting o Tried to modernize their areas o Sometimes assassinated because everyone wanted to take advantage of it o Not similar to the Warring States, they were more stable, lasted much longer (centuries)  The People
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