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University of Toronto Mississauga
Rebecca Wittmann

Lecture 4  Relationship b/w racial campaign and war campaign Mobile Killing Units  Regions where mass murders were committed, in contrast to concentration camps  1.1 million Jews murdered not in the death camps themselves  Ghettoization o Interning of Jews in small areas within cities o Poland -> all cities had small ghettos which were packed with hundreds and thousands of people  Extermination camps o Vast majority of death camps in Poland o Auschwitz not purely death camp  1939 anti-Jew act o Outside o 12 March 1938 Germans invade Austria -? Anshluβ (annexation)  Representation of Austria  Hitler wanted to leave independence but found enthusiasm by Nazis and there was no resistance in annexation  Germans and Austrians -> strong support for Hitler and Nazi Party  Hitler wanting to annex Czechoslovakia (Sudetenland) o Puts pressure on prime minister to allow o Chamberlin-> Munich Agreement  Britain, Italy and France meet with Hitler to decide fate of Czech  Get _____ and Hitler has to agree to let rest of Czech state Czechs not included in the conference   Months later 1939, Britain bully Czech into signing agreement to allow Hitler to invade rest of state  Hitler's foreign minister contacted Stalin and form Hitler-Stalin pact (wont attack each other) and Poland would be divided between both  After few delays, Sept 1939 without declaration of war, they invaded o Made it seem like Polish invaded (SS dressed concentration inmates as Polish officials)  Britain and France reacted immediately  In 3 weeks Germany took over Poland and annexed larger areas in west and north and put different authority in Central Poland (General Gouvernement)  Russia fought resistance in east (part of agreement but later Germany takes this)  April 1940 Germans occupy Denmark and Norway with different administrators  May 1940 under run Belgium, Netherlands (most brutal dictatorship) and attack France o 6 weeks after this while taking over Netherlands, France defeated  Year later in April/May, took Yugoslavia and Hungary and Romania become allies of Hitler  June 1941 after postponement, undergo Operation Barbarossa o Invasion of Russia (which is what causes them to lose war) o Part of racial campaign o Racial aspects: there are phases  1940/1941borders are shut and new policy on how to deal with Jews  Extermination began with handicapped in Germany, including kids  Before beginning of war, SS started killing those in hospitals by using gas -> Euthanasia  This period in 30s, Germany isn't only country talking about it but only one taking action  Shows outline of racial program and seems plan for this was already made July  Sept 1939 Hitler signed agreement exempting doctors from doing this  T4 -> 6 gassing facilities installed in different mental institutes (included kids and adults with mental or physical disabilities) and used on those considered delinquents/anti-social o Were selected by T4 doctors (worked as doctor prior and under Nazis and were sent to work here and then to concentration camps and then back to being doctors)  Direct impact on Holocaust  Doctors mostly based decision on medical files  Patients told to take shower but instead killed by CO gas and then bodies later cremated  Ashes taken from common pile into urn (without distinction) and sending death certificates and lie about cause of death o Similar causes of death and dates started to raise suspicion and started to wonder what was going on  Hitler halted this measure due to public measure clergy (Germans reacting strongly to this, didn't react as strongly when happening to Jews in east) o Population voicing outrage  Kristallnacht -> Germans outraged not because what was happening  Aug 1942 killing resumed but this time killed by lethal injection and drugs till end of WWII but had different target: Jews also being killed o 1942-1945: 70 thousand people o Nuremburg 275 000 people reported to be murdered o Not just doctors but urban planners, architected etc. also involved o Final solution -> Endlosung (can't use tern in Germany anymore)  Outside Germany, brought millions of Jews under German rule (Poland taken over by Germany) Various policies followed through  Poland  SS forced them to live in ghettos and then in big cities or railroads  SS includes police, various levels of armed soldiers but different from army o Army invades and SS follows who take part in killing (Catholics, Jews, artisans and intellectuals)  Jews considered slaves and fear of intellectuals starting resistance  1941 killed over million Jews  Went to Russia which brought more Jews in German rule  Einsatzgruppen (killing commandoes) would bring communists etc. to forests/remote area, make them dig graves and then shoot them  Lacked clear concept, seems like SS didn't know what to do with millions of Jews and decided to ____ o Sometimes Jew shot and falls in grave and pretend to be dead  Public would report Jews, helping SS o SS going to community and shooting them in their home o First would kill men but then started killing all Jews  Accompanied by another program as well (ghettos, camps etc.) o Calorie ration 120 calories per day  How could this happen?  Who are the ones engaged in mass murder? o Desk-top killers (sit at desk and giver orders)  Participation in hundreds  At top: leaders of Nazi part and state: Hitler, Him
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