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Lecture

lec 7.docx

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Department
History
Course Code
HIS338H5
Professor
Rebecca Wittmann

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Lecture 7 Denmark  Case of survival and happy ending type story  April 9 1940 occupied 7500 o 6000 vast majority Danish and 1500 refugees o Not large country and restriction on immigration  1940-43 benign -> Germans didn't perceive Denmark as a threat o Dominated foreign policy but Danish government still existed (rare) o Thought since Jews small number, weren't priority  Wannsee -> Scandinavian nations Jews left alone because population low so can be dealt with later o Brotherhood  1943 -> allied victories convinced Danes (and others) that Germany could be defeated o Danes start to engage in acts of resistance (acts of sabotage, worker strike) o Germans started making demands and Danish government didn't  Aug 1943 -> deportation of Jews because clear Danes won't go along with it o Nazis based in Denmark not most fanatic ideologically driven -> leaked info to Danes (non- Jews) who alert Jews  Oct 1 1943 -> police sent to arrest them but couldn’t find any in Copenhagen so went to Danish police but they refused to say anything o Royal family etc. didn't cooperate  NGOs moved Jews to coast and moved to Sweden o Rescue operation expanded to police and some ex-foreign government  700 000 Jews traveled safely to Sweden and accepted (virtually all Jewish population)  1944 Danish police demanded location of their Jews in Poland and were permitted letter and 1945 let go and given to Swedish red cross  300 Danish Jews died o Outrage/outcry by Danes  Was it because of goodwill? o No -> Denmark considered model protectorate o Hitler guaranteed land and government if they didn't resist o Danish government accept this  Reich o Werner Best /Bes Plenipotential o Brought in because considered strong -> was old Nazi (joined early on)  1943 brought in but didn't rule strongly, May 1943 he allowed elections and allowed 5 party coalition o When resistance brought 1943, people in Denmark didn't fear Nazis because not rules as harshly and knew Nazis (Germans)  After 3 years, Denmark was all like no and no real tradition of anti-Semitism tradition in Denmark - > Jews = small population so not viewed as thread o Nazis knew this and didn't rule as strictly to ensure things go smoothly  Though Werner Best (?) sabotaged rescue movement because liked staying in Denmark o Didn't wanna constrain German-Danish relationship  1944 Denmark in good position -> ruled by SS with strict head but Jews gone already o Thought if Jewish rescue started then, less resistance  Less harsh Nazi rule = more resistance -> no fear Netherland  May 1940 Germans took over all element and appointed Reich Commission (?) o Dutch government eradicated  Leader Arthur Seyss-Inquart  Dutch born Nazis (many more Dutch enamored with Germans and participating in Nazi events then Danes)  1940 German authorities forced Jews to leave civil service, register assets and register as Jews o 160 000 Jews and 20 000 Jews born of mixed race o Jewish council established Feb 1941  Dutch initially resistance o Feb 1941 start arresting Jews and sending to concentration camps and workers started civil strike  1941 Nazis feeling can't lose and Dutch have more Jews and opposite of Danes, started arresting Dutch, clamping down on Dutch o Sent to Amsterdam and those not, sent to transit camps (Westegor, northeast part of country, relatively close to German border)  April 1942 -> Jews required to wear yellow star religion  Summer 1942-44 -> 700 000 Jews deported to Auschwitz and Sobibor  Jews went in hiding o Dutch famous for practice of hiding Jews (i.e. Ann Frank, from Germany) o 2/3 of Dutch Jews in hiding survived o Reason factors like time, what's happening etc.  Geographic location -> too close to Germany so difficult to escape and government etc Germany/Nazi  1930s Feb 1941 -> Jews arrested and almost all shot which shocked people in Amsterdam and general  strike which was crippled by Germans o Dutch railway, police etc cooperated with deportation (deeply Nazi sympathized collaborators) o Would tell on neighbors who hid Jews while others helped Jews  7000 Jews summoned to square, only 500 complied and Germans sealed and went door to door to round them up and was successful Ann Frank  Peace loving woman who keeps diary (no matter what, I still believe people are good at heart) o She was deported and died  1 of 100 000 Jewish kids fled to Netherlands o Frankfurt 1929 born  When 1941 Amsterdam her family when to hiding with 4 other families in secret compartment  Neighbors rat them out  Aug 4 1944 hiding place found by Gestapo o Sept 1944 sent to Auschwitz o Time when Nazis slowing down because Soviet getting near  1944 Ann and Margo (sister) sent to concentration camp  March 1944 both died
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