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HIS395H5 (31)

lec 8.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Richard White

Lecture 8  End of Boom Years (1920s) o Some way extension of turn of century 1930  Giant building o Legitimate skyscraper in Toronto was tallest in British Commonwealth (at that time, not anymore)  Railways building these hotels decided to build them chateau style (nationalist approach) o Reason why Supreme Court's roof in in ^ style  Combination of cars everywhere o Electric streetcars  Problem on roads, not enough space for all these motor vehicles (motor vehicle control)  City of Toronto represented by ward numbers, not annexing land o i.e. Leaside was railway town, Etobicoke industrial, York township, East York township, York township  Separated out from York Town, 1922 East York (still part of present day Toronto), 1924 North York  Were becoming urbanized areas Great Depression  Toronto profoundly effected o 1931 17% unemployment in city of Toronto o 1933 30% unemployment in city of Toronto  Average in Canada was higher than 30%  Unemployment rises  Thousands of jobs that were created dry up -> no wage labor (boosted national average)  Most affected: low wage jobs, not wealthy o If had assets, could get by but people coming in Toronto didn't have connections/family to turn to to get by  Social strain developed o Anti-Semitism emerging  1939 riot in Christie Pit  Baseball game between two playgrounds and on one team mostly young adults and Jews and fight broke out for hours, many people hurt, police step in  6 hours of young men beating each other up on the playground/park o Could be because of economic distress, maybe Anti-Semites getting influenced by what's happening in Germany  Owners of businesses lowering wages to sell products  Strike: women in 1934  Strikes in Oshawa (GM strike)  Depression city in financial crises Revenue decrease, property tax increase as people lost jobs and lower wages etc. 25% of population requesting relief, some sort of welfare City survived by borrowing millions of $ -? Cried debt till 1939  Could borrow money because city had assets but smaller municipalities around city went in debt and stop pay  Province helped a bit, which added to its debt Toronto had to delay things  Plan for sewage system to enhance it and needed money to implement it Lower _____ housing starting to deteriorate o Lose job and moving in with family or neighbors, making full use of land o Poor people  Cheaper to own house that was smaller and junky o Owning house strategy used by people o People buying these houses had less money than ever so difficult for maintenance  Commercial property owners going through same thing (have people who can't pay rent, investing and not selling)  1934 provincial lieutenant governor Bruce (old reformer) decided something had to be done and commissioned study in low income areas to see condition of housing o Bruce report: bad condition and solution = slum clearance  Buy property, demolish and build new houses at public expense o Bulldozer whole neighborhood  Not simple because people living there  First slum clearing in Toronto being talked about  People using boards, scrap etc to cover roof etc. (in pic from Cabbage town) o May have been slum during depression but wasn't like that before  Bruce report surveyed whole city and found ward fixing itself (no longer residential) o Southern part of Cabbage Town and Moss Park where attention focused  Area of east downtown being of concern  Moss Park: William Allen was one of biggest business men, built country home and called it this  Inherited by his son and turn to residential area WWII  Sept 1939 WWII broke out  British declared was 2nd/3rd ____ and Canada didn't imme
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