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Richard White

Lecture 9  After of war, postwar period  After without any victories, 1941 Canada setting up committee for reconstruction o Reasons: Hopefulness that war will end soon  1942/43 mostly believed Western Allies would win WWI didn't facilitate transition to postwar and there were lots of strikes, inflations etc. problems from 1919 which government didn't want again  1941 set up and did nothing for a year  Jan 1943 country focused on reconstruction (private businesses establishing, advertising etc.) o Nearly Canadian obsession  Not planning for future but for better way -> war followed depression, Canadians deprived for generation  Affect on Toronto: as soon as government announced reconstruction, Toronto established Toronto's Reconstruction Council for city's reconstruction o People felt utopian spirit o Council had membership from lots of public organizations (reform groups, social groups, agencies, church etc.)  Coincides with idea of making better world together  Federal government not only source of money because war brought economic employment etc. in the city as well, businesses prospering  1943 payments for relief 18% of what they were in 1939 o City could think about investing in infrastructure, which couldn't do since 1929  War became springboard to new report in slum housing district -> housing reformers still active  TTC concocted plan for new underground plan down Younge, ____ and Queen St. (now called subway) o Proposed 1942 but considered 1943 and happened after war  Congestion so solution underground streetcars (subway) since streetcars (TTC) couldn't move on road  Younge St. busy o Was gonna take 14 million but TTC so widely used that TTC willing to pay half of the amount and city pay the rest  Postwar mindset -> landscape changing to accommodate change  City agreed to create plan on commission/ on board  American cities in 1940s used as models (though 60s American cities were something you should avoid)  To popularize idea, planning board did this by exhibitions (painting etc. put in art galleries and a lot of people would come to look) o After gallery, put in department store and called City of Tomorrow  Population Toronto 1941-1961 didn't change stayed ~467 000 (?) o Increased during war, decreased after  Doubled from 800 000 to 16 million around Toronto (the municipalities) o Rural townships being converted from farmland to city rapidly  1948, 1949, 1950 o Infrastructure crises: how to accommodate everyone?  People wanted roads to jobs, parks, families wanted schools, water sewage system, all needed to be established but how?  1939 metropolitan Toronto … something happened which convinced gov. of Ontario o Effective 1954  Took 13 municipalities amalgamated and called metropolitan Toronto but still had own councils, electi
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