Job specialization: the process by which a division of labor occurs as different employees specialize in different tasks over time. Frederick w. taylor (1856-1915) best known for defining the techniques of scientific management: scientific management: systematic study of relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process to increase efficiency, 4 principles: Study the way workers perform their tasks, gather all the informal job knowledge that workers possess, and experiment with ways of improving the way tasks are performed. Codify the new methods of performing tasks into written rules and standard operating procedures. Carefully select workers so that they possess skills and abilities that match the needs of the task, and train them to perform the task according to the established rules and procedures. Establish a fair or acceptable level of performance for a task, and then develop a pay system that provides a reward for performance above the acceptable level.