Chapter 2 - the evolution of management theory. B(cid:455) frederi(cid:272)k w. ta(cid:455)lor, the (cid:862)father of s(cid:272)ie(cid:374)tifi(cid:272) (cid:373)a(cid:374)age(cid:373)e(cid:374)t(cid:863) Wanted to improve productivity of people at work. The systematic study of relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process to increase efficiency. Brought many employees more hardship than gain, and left them with a distrust of managers who did not seem to care about their well- being. By the gilbreths, two followers of taylor. The science of reducing a task to its basic physical motions. The study of how to create an organizational structure that leads to high efficiency and effectiveness. The system of task and authority relationships that control how employees use resour(cid:272)es to a(cid:272)hie(cid:448)e the orga(cid:374)izatio(cid:374)(cid:859)s goals. A formal system of organization and administration designed to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. Principles are essential to increasing the efficiency of the management process. Examples: division of work, unity of command, equity, discipline, authority, centralization.