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Reference Guide

Permachart - Marketing Reference Guide: English Verbs, Gerund, Il Giornale

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-are, -ere, -ire
Italian Verbs
Italian Verbs
• A verb is a word that denotes an action, a process,
or a state
• Italian word order is much more free than English
word order: in particular, the subject can precede or
follow the verb; subjects of intransitive verbs often
Examples: Arriva il treno. [The train is coming.];
Ha telefonato Giovanni. [John called.]
• Usually the most relevant word begins the sentence;
if this word is the object, it must be doubled by a
pronominal particle attached to the verb
Example: Il giornale l’ho letto tutto. [I read all the
• Any part of a clause can be placed at the beginning
of a sentence; only adverbs can come between a
participle and an auxiliary verb
1st io (I) noi (we)
2nd tu (you) voi (you [plural]),
Voi (you [plural, formal])
3rd lui (he), egli loro (they), essi (they
(he [written]) [inanimate])
esso (inanimate
lei (she), ella loro (they), esse (they
(she [written]) [inanimate])
essa (inanimate
Lei (you [formal]) Loro (you [plural, very
-are amare [to love]
andare [to go]
-ere cadere [to fall]
leggere [to read]
-ire sentire [to hear, to feel]
capire [to understand]
-are -ere -ire
Infinitive amare cadere sentire
(to love) (to fall) (to hear)
Gerund amando cadendo sentendo
Participle amato caduto sentito
Note: Subject pronouns in Italian are not obligatory
• Infinitive endings are dropped, appropriate endings
are added
Subtype of -ire Conjugations
A number of verbs in the -ire conjugation add a suffix
-isc before the endings of the 1st singular, 2nd
singular, 3rd singular, and 3rd plural in the present
indicative and subjunctive and in the 2nd singular
• A verb’s mood expresses how the speaker feels about what is being said
• In independent clauses, the indicative mood is used to state a fact
• Includes present, present perfect, imperfect, past perfect, past absolute, past
anterior, future, future perfect
Example: Vado al cinema. [I go to the movies.]
• The subjunctive mood is used in independent clauses to express an order or a
• In subordinate clauses it is mostly obligatory
• Expresses possibility to a limited extent
• Includes present, past, imperfect, and past perfect
Example: Cerco qualcuno che venga al cinema con me. [I’m looking for somebody
who wants to go to the movies with me.]
• The conditional mood is used to express a possibility
• Includes present and past
Example: Andrei al cinema (se potessi). [I would go to the movies (if I could).]
• The imperative mood is used to express an order (limited to 2nd person)
• It only has a present tense
Example: Vieni con me al cinema! [Come to the movies with me!]
• Modal verbs are used
with other verbs to
express difference
between a possiblity
and an attitude
• Modal verbs are followed by infinitives (Devo andare [I have to go.]; Posso
andare. [I can go.]; Voglio andare. [I want to go.])
• Include auxiliaries for
compound tenses (essere [to
be] and avere [to have]), for
passive (essere [to be] and
venire [to come]), for
progressive (stare [to stand])
• In Italian there is no auxiliary
for questions or negative
utterances such as English to do
Example: Vado al cinema. / Non
vado al cinema. / Vai al cinema? [I
go to the movies. / I don’t go to
the movies. / Do you go to the
dovere ‘to have to’, ‘must’, ‘should’, ‘ought’
potere ‘to be able to’, ‘can’, ‘may’, ‘could’, might’
volere ‘to want to’, ‘will’, ‘would like’
1st 2nd 3rd
essere sono sei è
avere ho hai ha
1st 2nd 3rd
essere siamo siete sono
avere abbiamo avete hanno
• The tense of a verb indicates whether an event takes place in the present, past,
or future with respect to the moment of utterance
• Tenses may be formed by dropping infinitive endings and adding
other endings, according to person and number (simple tenses),
or they may be formed with the participle and an
auxiliary (compound tenses)
• Simple tenses include present, imperfect, past
absolute, and future
Example: leggo [I read] / leggevo [I used to read]
• Compound tenses include present perfect, past
perfect, past anterior, and future perfect
Example: ho letto [I read] / avevo letto [I had read]
© 2003-2014 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
ITALIAN VERBS • 1-55080-779-X 1
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