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Italian Verbs - Reference Guides

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permacharts MT IItalian V erbs 2nd EDITION INTRODUCTION MOODS • A verb is a word that denotes an action, a process, • A verb’s mood expresses how the speaker feels about what is being said or a state • In independent clauses, the indicative mood is used to state a fact • Italian word order is much more free than English • Includes present, present perfect, imperfect, past perfect, past absolute, past word order: in particular, the subject can precede or anterior, future, future perfect follow the verb; subjects of intransitive verbs often Example: Vado al cinema. [I go to the movies.] follow • The subjunctive mood is used in independent clauses to express an order or a Examples: Arriva il treno. [The train is coming.]; wish Ha telefonato Giovanni. [John called.] • Usually the most relevant word begins the sentence; • In subordinate clauses it is mostly obligatory if this word is the object, it must be doubled by a • Expresses possibility to a limited extent pronominal particle attached to the verb • Includes present, past, imperfect, and past perfect Example: Cerco qualcuno che venga al cinema con me. [I’m looking for somebody Example: Il giornale l’ho letto tutto. [I read all the who wants to go to the movies with me.] newspaper.] • Any part of a clause can be placed at the beginning • The conditional mood is used to express a possibility of a sentence; only adverbs can come between a • Includes present and past participle and an auxiliary verb Example: Andrei al cinema (se potessi). [I would go to the movies (if I could).] S UBJECT PRONOUNS • The imperative mood is used to express an order (limited to 2nd person) • It only has a present tense 1st io (I) noi (we) Example: Vieni con me al cinema! [Come to the movies with me!] 2nd tu (you) voi (you [plural]), Voi (you [plural, formal]) 3rd lui (he), egli loro (they), essi (they MODAL VERBS (he [written]) [inanimate]) esso (inanimate • Modal verbs are used dovere ‘to have to’, ‘must’, ‘should’, ‘ought’ [written]) with other verbs to express difference potere ‘to be able to’, ‘can’, ‘may’, ‘could’, might’ lei (she), ella loro (they), esse (they between a possiblity volere ‘to want to’, ‘will’, ‘would like’ (she [written]) [inanimate]) and an attitude essa (inanimate • Modal verbs are followed by infinitives (Devo andare [I have to go.]; Posso [written]) andare. [I can go.]; Voglio andare. [I want to go.]) Lei (you [formal]) Loro (you [plural, very formal]) AUXILIARIES Note: Subject pronouns in Italian are not obligatory • Include auxiliaries for CONJUGATION compound tenses (essere [to be] and avere [to have]), for Singular passive (essere [to be] and THREE TYPES OF VERBS: venire [to come]), for 1st 2nd 3rd -are, -ere, -ire progressive (stare [to stand]) essere sono sei è • In Italian there is no auxiliary avere ho hai ha • Infinitive endings are dropped, appropriate endings for questions or negative are added utterances such as English to do Plural -are amare [to love] Example: Vado al cinema. / Non 1st 2nd 3rd andare [to go] vado al cinema. / Vai al cinema? [I -ere cadere [to fall] go to the movies. / I don’t go to essere siamo siete sono leggere [to read] the movies. / Do you go to the avere abbiamo avete hanno -ire sentire [to hear, to feel] movies?] capire [to understand] MAIN CONJUGATIONS TENSES -are -ere -ire • The tense of a verb indicates whether an event takes place in the present, past, Infinitive amare cadere sentire or future with respect to the moment of utterance • Tenses may be formed by dropping infinitive endings and adding (to love) (to fall) (to hear) other endings, according to person and number (simple tenses), Gerund amando cadendo sentendo or they may be formed with the participle and an Participle amato caduto sentito auxiliary (compound tenses) • Simple tenses include present, imperfect, past Subtype of -ire Conjugations absolute, and future A number of verbs in the -ire conjugation add a suffix Example: leggo [I read] / leggevo [I used to read] -isc before the endings of the 1st singular, 2nd • Compound tenses include present perfect, past singular, 3rd singular, and 3rd plural in the present perfect, past anterior, and future perfect indicative and subjunctive and in the 2nd singular Example: ho letto [I read] / avevo letto [I had read] imperative 1 ITALIANVERBS • 1-55080-779-X w © 2003-2014 Mindsource Technologies Inc. permachartsTM PRESENT TENSE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE • The present tense is used to denote actions, processes, or states that take • Denotes actions that began (and concluded) in the place at the moment of utterance past; describes an action that is a completed unit, • It can also express everyday habits, and be used for absolute statements reporting that it already took place at a fixed time in the past Examples: Parlo Inglese. [I speak English. / I am speaking English.]; I cani mordono. [Dogs bite.] Examples: Sono andato a casa. [I went home.]; Ho • For an action or process which is taking place at the moment of utterance lavorato per tre mesi. [I worked for three months.] the progressive form can also be used, but it is not obligatory • May have a resultative meaning Example: Ho dipinto un quadro. [I painted a picture (and Example: Parlo Inglese. / Sto parlando Inglese. [I am speaking English.] finished it).] IDICATIVE PRESENT • May denote an action or process whose effects still hold in the present Singular Plural Example: È già partito. [He has already left.] 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd • May be accompanied by a specific expression of time -are amo ami ama amiamo amate amano or an adverb Example: È partito ieri. [He left yesterday.] -ere cado cadi cade cadiamo cadete cadono -ire sento senti sente sentiamo sentite sentono • Formed with auxiliary avere (all transitive and some intransitive verbs) or essere (most intransitive verbs and subtype capisco capisci capisce capiamo capite capiscono all reflexive verbs); participles of verbs that take essere have gender agreement with the subject; participles of verbs that take avere have gender agreement with the object, only if the object is a pronominal particle FUTURE TENSE Examples: Ho mangiato una mela. [I ate an apple.]; Sono andato/andata a Roma. [I went (m./f.) to Rome.]; • The future tense is used to denote an event that has not yet taken place; Non I’ho visto/vista. [I did not see (m./f.) him/her.] can also express probability Example: (Saranno le sette. [It’s probably seven o’clock.]); only exists in the indicative mood FUTURE PERFECT CONJUGATION • Formed by the future forms of avere or essere followed by a participle Singular Plural Example: Quando arriverò, Giovanni sarà già partito. [By 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd the time I arrive, John will have already have left.] -are amerò amerai amerà ameremo amerete ameranno -ere cadrò cadrai cadrà cadremo cadrete cadranno leggerò leggerai leggerà leggeremo leggerete leggeranno PAST PERFECT TENSE -ire sentirò sentirai sentirà sentiremo sentirete sentiranno • Formed by the imperfect forms of avere or essere • Forms of essere: sarò, sarai, sarà, saremo, sarete, saranno followed by a participle • Avere follows the conjugation of cadere Example: Giovanni era uscito. [John had gone out.] PAST IMPERFECT TENSE PAST ABSOLUTE • Imperfect denotes an action, • It is also used for • Denotes an event that has taken place far away in time; describes process, or state with an indefinite descriptions in the past or events as completed units; may be accompanied by a specific duration; it can also express to create the setting for a expression of time or an adverb everyday habits in the past story • Commonly used in narrative style Examples: Ieri c’era tanta gente per Examples: Era un uomo alto. Example: Morí nella Seconda Guerra Mondiale. [He died in the Second strada. [There were many people in [He was a tall man.]; C’era World War.] the street yesterday.]; Da bambino una volta un re che viveva in leggevo molto. [As a child I used to un palazzo. [Once upon a read a lot.] time, there was a king who CONJUGATION • In the case of indefinite duration, lived in a palace.] Singular Plural the imperfect can express the • May replace past background to a specific event; conditional and subjunctive 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd in such cases, the progressive in the spoken language -are amai amasti amò amammo amaste amarono form may also be used Example: Se pioveva non Example: Mangiavo / Stavo uscivo. / Se fosse piovuto non -ere caddi cadesti cadde cademmo cadeste caddero mangiando quando è suonato il sarei uscito. [If it had rained, lessi leggesti lesse leggemmo leggeste lessero -ire sentii sentisti sentí sentimmo sentiste sentirono telefono. [I was eating when the I would not have gone out.] telephone rang.] Note: Most verbs in the -ere group have irregular forms in the CONJUGATION past absolute • Only one set of endings – 1st 2nd 3rd CONJUGATION OF AUXILIARIES the imperfect is made by dropping the -re part of the Singular -vo -vi -va Singular Plural infinite ending, and adding Plural -vamo -vate -vano 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd the endings avere ebbi ebbe ebbe avemmo aveste ebbero • No verbs have an irregular imperfect, except for essere • Forms of essere: ero, eri, era, eravamo, eravate, erano essere fui fosti fu fummo foste furono 2 ITALIANVERBS • 1-55080-779-X w w w . p © 2003-2014 Mindsource Technologies Inc. permachartsTM GERUND • The gerund is an adverbial form of the verb • If no subject for the gerund is specified, the subject of the gerund • Can be simple or compound can only be the same as the subject of the main verb • Can correspond to the -ing form of English verbs and denote a Example: Sono uscito di casa correndo. [I ran out of my house.]; Ho visto Mario uscendo. [I saw Mario while I was going out.] possibility or a cause or reason
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