LIN101H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Roundedness, Tejn, Joule

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5 Feb 2016
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LIN101 Lecture #3 – January 21st
Phonetics II: Vowels
Note:
-Labial and bilabial means the same thing, although they use labial and bilabial in the textbook
-If a stop isn't specified, it's usually referring to the oral stops, and not the nasal stops
-The little "o" under a consonant/vowel means "no voice"
-Review textbook page 37
Review
What are the three properties we use to describe consonants?
Manner of articulation, place of articulation, voicing
List the stops in English (usually means the oral stops only, not nasals)
[b], [d], [g], [p] [t], [k]
List the nasal stops in English
[m], [n] [ŋ]
List the alveolar sounds in English
[t] [d] [s] [z] [l] [r] [n]
How many affricates are there?
Two - one is voiced and the other is voiceless
Introduction
-The inventory of a particular language is only a subset of all known speech sounds, thus there
would never be ~800 speech sounds
-Thus, when we study the English language, we are also studying a subset of all those speech
sounds, so there may not be 800 speech sounds
-Vowels are different from consonants, because it has to do with constriction of air
The tongue tends to stay lower in the mouth; the effect that this has is that air can move
more freely through your lungs
Air is always constrictive in some way when it comes to consonants, but that's not the
case with vowels
Height and backness refers to where your tongue is; we're talking about the highest point
of the tongue in the mouth
--> The highest part of the tongue in your mouth is in the front and it's raised (ex: [i] in he)
Roundedness has to do with what your tongue is doing
Tenseness occurs with greater muscular tension
1. Transcribe the following words: see, say, Sue, so
[si], [sej], [su], [sow]
2. What would the words be if the vowels were lax?
[sI], [se], [ ], [so]ʊ
-Diphthongs are a combination of vowel and a glide
-The three major diphthongs are:
[aj]
[aw]
[oj]
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