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Lecture 2

LIN 102 Lecture 2: Intro to Morphology

Course Code
Arsalan Kahnemuyipour

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Lecture 2 – Intro to Morphology
What is Morphology?
oMorphology is the study of the structure of words and how they are formed
oYou could be talking about the component of your knowledge or you could be
talking about an area (such as Morphology being an area of Linguistics)
Q: What does it mean to know a word?
oYou have to know its meaning, have knowledge about its syntax (where it
shows/form it may take), and you know the sound
oThus, knowing phonological information (sounds), semantic info (meaning),
syntactic info (ex: appear in places where nouns appear), morphological info &
pragmatic info (where would you use this word? --> ex: hi (informal) vs. hello
Q: What is Lexicon?
oIt is your mental dictionary. The knowledge of various words that you have is
stored in the brain's dictionary, aka the lexicon.
Q: What are lexical categories or parts of speech?
oNoun (person, place or thing), verb, etc
oEx: "Love" is both a noun and a verb (where it shows up tells us whether it's a
oMeaning isn't a very reliable approach but the distribution is a better approach to
identify whether it's a noun/verb
oEx: She loves them both. The -s is a marking that shows up on the verb (third
person singular) because of the "she"
Identifying lexical categories;
oMeaning (not reliable): Nouns refer to persons, places or things; adjectives refer
to qualities of nouns, verbs describe actions
oRelated forms (e.g.: nouns take plural -s, adjectives take
comparative/superlative, -er/-est, verbs take past -ed, progressive -ing, etc
oDistribution: where it appears (syntax). For ex: nouns appear with a/an/the,
adjectives with very, verbs with can/will, etc
Q: What is a word?
oAn element in the sentence that can be moved around
oSmallest free-form in a language and meaning is attached to it with sound
oAn arbitrary pairing of sound and meaning (Ferdinand de Saussure)
oThe smallest free form found in a language (Leonard Bloomfield's 1926
Q: Do the following strings constitute a single word or multiple words?
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