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Lecture 12

LIN102H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Complementary Distribution, Epenthesis, Record Producer

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Arsalan Kahnemuyipour

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Complementary Distribution
-Ask = Metathesis
-Hamster = transitions from m to s thus the p in #2 = the p acts as a bridge (shares properties with m
and s - voiceless & labial) = epenthesis
-Sandwich = deletion + when n becomes an m, the process is assimilation because "w" has labial
-Where is that knowledge? It's a mental capacity, thus it's in our minds
-There's three abstract units of speech sound that are part of an inventory of sounds that are
recognized as belonging to English
--> 1) is produced with air & 2) is abstract in our minds
// = sound abstract in our mind
[] = sound produced by air
/ae/ = that's the phoneme
[ae] = called a phone (this Is the nasalized version of it)
-Allophones are the various realizations of the abstract unit
-Phonology is the abstract system study of the sound systems of human language
Determine if the /p/ is aspirated
-peak, proud = aspirated
-speak, heap, heaps = no aspiration
Repeat = aspiration
-Hospital, upper = no aspiration
--> When /p/ is at the beginning of the stress syllable, it's aspirated
--> For hospital for example, it's not at the beginning of a syllable and thus it's not aspirated
Syllable initial stress
--> Percent, parade = aspiration
-Complementary distribution; when two sounds occur in different environments, they're said to be in
complimentary distribution
-A phoneme and its allophones = Santa Claus & the actual dad, Hannah Montana & Miley Cyrus
/p/ at the top of the branch is no sound associated with it
-Unreleased p, such as in the word "cap" (this is a third allophone)
-Voicing gives us the difference between please and bleed, nib and nip, pan and ban
That means that the difference between /p/ and /b/ is meaningful; thus they must be two
different phonemes
Phonemes don't have sounds, but they do have realizations (which are the allophones)
A minimal pair is a pair of words that differ minimally
/p/ is a voiceless stop (ex: take vs. stab = aspiration vs no aspiration)
-cake vs scrape (aspiration vs no aspiration)
-These are not minimal pairs;
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