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Lecture 4

LIN229H5 Lecture 4: Phonemes and Allophones
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Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LIN229H5
Professor
Ivan Chow

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Lecture 4
What is the difference between a phoneme and an allophone?
-A phoneme is a sound unit that's in your mind (it actually has no sound; it's just an abstract unit
used to build words)
-An allophone is the actual sound that you produce when you use this phoneme to make a word
-To write the phoneme, we use the slashes; /p/ //b/
-The allophones would be [ph] and [p] and for /b/ it'd be [b]
-When it's voiceless we get the /aw/ whereas when it's voiced we get the /aj/ sound such as in
[rajd]
-UR means the phonological and abstract representation (underlined representation)
-PR means the phonological rule
-Canadian raising is always turned on in the mind (PR)
-Aspiration rule: word initially or syllable initially when the syllable is stressed
Naturalistic Studies; based on observations
Longitudinal data; progresses over time
You may track something over time (a long period of time); such as word diaries
-Normative studies; gender differences in phonological accuracy at age 6 but not 3
Hart and Riley took recorders and attached it to babies; the recorder recorded everything
that the baby was hearing
-Order of acquisition (english); vowels are required first
-French babies have more a rising cry and German babies have a more falling cry
-Perception usually develops ahead of production
-High amplitude sucking; computer measures the speed of infants' sucking
When you see a spike, that means they've seen a difference (infants)
-Headturn preference procedure (4-20 months); a baby sits on the parent's lap and the
experimenter stays outside -- it tracks when the infant turns its head
-There's a sound and a light also playing/appearing -- the sound keeps playing until the infant
looks away
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Description
Lecture 4 What is the difference between a phoneme and an allophone? A phoneme is a sound unit thats in your mind (it actually has no sound; its just an abstract unit used to build words) An allophone is the actual sound that you produce when you use this phoneme to make a word To write the phoneme, we use the slashes; p b The allophones would be [ph] and [p] and for b itd be [b] When its voiceless we get the aw whereas when its voiced we get the aj sound such as in [rajd] UR means the phonological and abstract representation (underlined representation) PR means the phonological rule Canadian raising is always turned on in the mind (PR) Aspiration rule: word initially or syllable initially when the syllable is stressed Naturalistic Studies; based on observations Longitudinal data; progresses over time You may track something over time (a long period of time); such as word diaries Normative studies; gender differences in phonological accuracy at age 6 but not 3 Hart and Riley took recorders and attached it to babies; the recorder recorded everything that the baby was hearing Order of acquisition (english); vowels are required first French babies have more a rising cry and German babies have a more falling cry Perception usually develops ahead of production High amplitude sucking; computer measures the speed of infants sucking When you see a spike, that means theyve seen a difference (infants) Headturn preference procedure (420 months); a baby sits on the parents lap and the experimenter stays outside it tracks when the infant turns its head Theres a sound and a light also playingappearing the sound keeps playing until the infant looks away
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