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Lecture 9

LIN232H5 Lecture 9: Semantic Relations
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Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LIN232H5
Professor
Michelle Troberg

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Lecture 9 Semantic Relations
-Hypernym is the superordinate concept and the hyponyms are the subordinate meanings
Ex: Color is the hypernym and red/blue/green are examples of hyponyms
-Of the various hyponyms of hypernyms, typically one of them is seen as a prototype
Polysemy = one word can have several related meanings
Ex: Head of the body or head of an organization
Ex #2: run for people and run for water
Homographs = two words with same spelling but different meanings (dove - the bird/dove - past
tense of dive)
Homophones = same pronunciation but different meanings (sea/see)
Homonymy = words that are both homographic and homophonous; they have several unrelated
meanings (look the same but mean different things) (bank - of a river/bank- financial institution)
Date
Calendar
Fruit
Romantic Encounter
Appointment
Figure of age
Verb
-In this example, the word "date" would be homonymous as it has 2 meanings (date =fruit and
date = time)
-Languages have words that describe motion
-French cannot conflate manner with motion; it combines path with motion and the manner is
expressed in a separate phrase
-Some languages might put motion and manner in the verb, while others do it differently
-The verb that you use for move depends on the actual object that is moving
Semantic Relations
-Paraphrase; two sentences mean the same thing
-Entailment: when the truth of one sentence guarantees the truth of the other sentence (but not
the other way around)
-When you have a hypernym in the sentence, you have an entailment
-Paraphrase can be defined as mutual entailment; A entails B, B entails A, A & B are
paraphrases
-Contradiction: when the truth of one sentence guarantees the falseness of the other sentence
-Syntax is that structure impacts meaning
--> Unlockable (building meaning upon meaning)
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Description
Lecture 9 Semantic Relations -Hypernym is the superordinate concept and the hyponyms are the subordinate meanings Ex: Color is the hypernym and red/blue/green are examples of hyponyms -Of the various hyponyms of hypernyms, typically one of them is seen as a prototype Polysemy = one word can have several related meanings Ex: Head of the body or head of an organization Ex #2: run for people and run for water Homographs = two words with same spelling but different meanings (dove - the bird/dove - past tense of dive) Homophones = same pronunciation but different meanings (sea/see) Homonymy = words that are both homographic and homophonous; they have several unrelated meanings (look the same but mean different things) (bank - of a river/bank- financial institution) Date Calendar Fruit Romantic Encounter Appointment Figure of age Verb -In this example, the word "date" would be homonymous as it has 2 meanings (date =fruit and date = time) -Languages have words that describe motion -French cannot conflate manner with motion; it combines path with motion and the manner is expressed in a separate phrase -Some languages might put motion and manner in the verb, while others do it differently -The verb that you use for move depends on the actual object that is moving Semantic Relations -Paraphrase; two sentences mean the same thing -Entailment: when the truth of one sentence guarantees the truth of the other sentence (but not the other way around) -When you have a hypernym in the sentence, you have an entailment -Paraphrase can be defined as mutual entailment; A entails B, B entails A, A & B are paraphrases -Contradiction: when the truth of one sentence guarantees the falseness of the other sentence -Syntax is that structure impacts meaning --> Unlockable (building meaning upon meaning) -Syntactic construction have a caused motion construction (NPxV NPy PP) --> Ex: John pushed the truck off the table --> Ex #2: Mary moved the car into the garage --> Ex #3: Paul pulled the dog into the house Thematic Roles -Experiencer: experiences a physical/mental sensation -Agent: performs the action -Theme: the thing that's the agent -Location: where the action occurs -Source/Goal: where an entity moves from and where it moves to -Instrument: what is used to do the action Just because it's a subject doesn't make it an agent (ex: The key opened the door) -The wind opened the door = the wind = agent or the cause -The d
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