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Lecture 9

LIN232H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Deep Structure And Surface Structure, Hyponymy And Hypernymy, Polysemy

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Michelle Troberg

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Lecture 9 Semantic Relations
-Hypernym is the superordinate concept and the hyponyms are the subordinate meanings
Ex: Color is the hypernym and red/blue/green are examples of hyponyms
-Of the various hyponyms of hypernyms, typically one of them is seen as a prototype
Polysemy = one word can have several related meanings
Ex: Head of the body or head of an organization
Ex #2: run for people and run for water
Homographs = two words with same spelling but different meanings (dove - the bird/dove - past
tense of dive)
Homophones = same pronunciation but different meanings (sea/see)
Homonymy = words that are both homographic and homophonous; they have several unrelated
meanings (look the same but mean different things) (bank - of a river/bank- financial institution)
Romantic Encounter
Figure of age
-In this example, the word "date" would be homonymous as it has 2 meanings (date =fruit and
date = time)
-Languages have words that describe motion
-French cannot conflate manner with motion; it combines path with motion and the manner is
expressed in a separate phrase
-Some languages might put motion and manner in the verb, while others do it differently
-The verb that you use for move depends on the actual object that is moving
Semantic Relations
-Paraphrase; two sentences mean the same thing
-Entailment: when the truth of one sentence guarantees the truth of the other sentence (but not
the other way around)
-When you have a hypernym in the sentence, you have an entailment
-Paraphrase can be defined as mutual entailment; A entails B, B entails A, A & B are
-Contradiction: when the truth of one sentence guarantees the falseness of the other sentence
-Syntax is that structure impacts meaning
--> Unlockable (building meaning upon meaning)
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