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POL112H5 Lecture Notes - Authoritarianism, Critical Role, Civil Society

Political Science
Course Code
Justin Bumgardner

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Democracy and Theory in Practice 1/24/2013 1:14:00 PM
Democratic Boom
First wave of democracy (1828)
Began with the expansion of democratic suffrage in the US
Reverse wave began in the 1920’s when Mussolini took over Italy
Second wave of democracy (1945)
Shorter wave began with allied victory in ww2
Included latin american states and former british colonies
Reverse wave began in 1962, bringing widespread military juntas and
one-party rule, leaving only two democracies in South America
Third wave of Democracy (1974)
Many nonviolent “people power” movements: Phillippines (1986), South
Korea (1987), Taiwan (1996)
End of communism produced many new democracies
Last spurt of democracies: Serbia (2000), Georgia (2003), Ukraine
63 of 110 nondemocratic states (from 1974) became democracies
21 of 27 newly independent states become democracies
How the third wave happened (1)
early transitions were triggered by internal grievances and events
-defeat in war (Greece)
death of dictator (spain)
murder of an opposition leader (phillippines)
emotional visit from pope (Poland)
later transitions were stimulated by earlier ones (snowballing)
Poland and east Germany influenced other eastern European
Philippines influenced south korea and Tiananmen square protests
Negotiated character of most of the transitions
Compromises between right wing regimes and leftist opposition
South Africa as an example
Civil society played a critical role
Protests, strikes, demonstrations and other acts of resistance
Hurt the economy, destabilized the authoritarian order
Electoral process helped
Authoritarian leaders overestimated their chances of victory at the
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