POL200Y5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Glaucon, Afterall, The Need

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5 Oct 2016
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1. POL200 – Lecture 5 – Plato; Republic III & IV
Book II of the Republic – Summary from Lecture 4
What kind of Good is Justice?
oPeople are just because they don’t have the power to avoid
punishment – it is about power difference.
The Challenge Put Forward by Glaucon?
oGluacon says the just person is the better person – but hasn’t
heard a persuading argument yet
Take away all consequences and look at reality and how
things appear
oSocrates says we need to find a definition for justice and observe
if the person would really be happier
Socrates Search for Justice – Book II
The Parallel between the Polis and the Individual
oSocrates says we are searching for justice in the Polis – because
it is much larger than the individual, thus easier to find
Looking for justice in the individual is too small – hard
Founding the Polis/City – One Person One Work
oNo one is self-sufficient that they can do alone – polis is founded
on the requirement of human needs
oNatural division of labor – individuals should do one job/task, for
which they are naturally suited for – point of defining Justice
oIt is more efficient and natural to have a division of labor to
which everyone does what they naturally do
oThe first citizens are farmers, carpenters, shoemakers etc.
The Polis is Complete… or is it?
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oThe Polis is done because everyone has a task to do so everyone
is taken care of
oSocrates says adding – poets, dancers, merchants will make the
Polis luxurious
Curing the Feverish Polis – Book II-III
Consequence of Adding Luxuries
oA polis with all this added luxuries because they aren’t necessary
Hard to find justice in this new Polis – needs healing
oFirstly, a territorial expansion with addition of new additives are
needed
More territory thus a warrior is needed to maintain and
accumulate more area – a class of warriors is needed.
One Person One Task – The Need for Warriors or Guardians
oIt is not efficient for farmers, weavers, shoe-makers to be
warriors – a new group of strictly warriors/guardians are needed
Part time warriors are not effective
oThe work of the guardian is most important, require skill and
devotion – beyond the capacity of a farmer
The Special Characteristics of the Guardians
oSocrates says the guardian must be spirited for war, must have
discretion to differ enemies from their own people, and must
have wisdom
Must also have a philosophical soul
oThey must be real guardians – thus needing education
Education of the Guardians – Education for the Soul
oA cultural education
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