People who created it were motivated to use more traditional methodology. Wanted to use best elements of realists, liberals, etc. Wanted english school to broaden their focus of analysis and sharpen their focus on their theories. Wanted to look at non-military threats to state, such as environmental and health issues (ex aids in africa) Critiques of english school many of the same weaknesses as realists and liberals (b/c they use many of their ideas) Key variables are not adequately operationalized and defined. More focus on high politics issues (war, peace), but neglect smaller issues. They ad hoc, like realists and liberals don"t have meta-theory. Some use history to explain present, future, or inevitable path of events. O most of them are post-positive reject the idea of underlying reality. O others argue that ideas that ideas become so ingrained, you can quantify ideas almost like being positivist (some variation) O wendt: why are britain"s 500 nuclear weapons less threatening than.