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Lecture 12

LIN376H5 Lecture 12: eNotes

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Troberg, M.

LIN376 - e-Notes; Video Notes Holding the Latin Alphabet: ▪ G was the first to emerge ▪ Greek /g/ (which stood for /k/ and /g/) turned to C ▪ These two velar stops shared some features but only differed in one thing; voicing ▪ Carvilius created a new g which made the two be apart ▪ The 26 letters of Latin alphabet fitted into our english tongue but some of the letters have been craft ▪ The G, J, U, W, Y don’t have the ancient pedigree of the alphabet ▪ G was the first to emerge — it turned to latin C which stood both for the sound /k/ and /g/ ▪ The valiant k was going out of fashion ▪ These two velar stops share most of their features but they differentiate in terms of voicing — the /k/ is -voice and the /g/ is +voice ▪ Carvillius created a new g, which then set the C apart from the G ▪ Tilde I gave middle european languages a way to set j apart from i ▪ The first i was a j sound Are you curious about how we know the pronunciation of Ancient Latin? ▪ People say it’s a dead language and that they don’t know how to pronounce it ▪ However, we know a lot about the way the pronunciation of Classical Latin • There’s 18 volumes of Kyle, writing of Latin, written by the Romans • Much of this writing concerns pronunciation • Ballet also wrote about syntax, pronunciation, etc of Latin ▪ We also know some amount from transliterations of Latin into other languages and from inscriptions • For example, the Greeks translated from Romans to Greek and the Ancient Jews also transliterated Latin into Hebrew texts, so we have evidence from that as well ▪ Words change in meanings, but these sounds can be reconstructed by Latin poetry, as the length of the syllable is often affected by the length of the vowel ▪ The structure of Latin poetry is from the syllable length ▪ We may not have exact accents of an Ancient Roman, but we still have an idea of how to pronounce words in Latin ▪ We can and should approximate the Latin of educated speakers TEDx Talks — The Uncanny Science of Linguistic Reconstructions ▪ The reason Romance languages are called Romance languages, is because they look similar ▪ They’re all descended from the language of the Romans, mainly Latin ▪ All languages change over time and they develop dialects in different places ▪ Dialects develop into different languages • This is what happened with Italian, French and Spanish ▪ The language families are as follows: • Romance: Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian • Germanic: English, German, Dutch, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian • Celtic: Irish, Welsh, Scots Gaelic, Breton • Slavic: Russian, Polish, Czech, Bulgarian, Serbo-Croatian • Indic: Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Romani • Iranian: Farsi, Pashto, Kurdish • Hellenic: Greek • Semitic: Arabic, Hebrew • Tibetan: Chinese, Burmese, Tibetan • Austronesian: Polynesian languages ▪ These are only some groupings that we can establish ▪ If we take these language families and a few others, we can see some similarities ▪ These languages must be descended from some ancestor language then, since there’s similarities between those languages • German is not the ancestor of English, they’re both descended from a common ancestor; the same way that Spanish and French are descended from a common ancestor • However, when we don’t know what the common ancestor was, because it wasn’t written down, then we give
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