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MGM300 Lecture- Chapter 7.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Soo Min Toh

Chapter 7- Groups and Teamwork What Is a Group?  A group consists of two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal.  May be formal or informal  Why is group membership important? o Groups exert influence on us. o Groups provide a context in which we are able to exert influence on others.  Groups require a fair amount of negotiation and trial-and-error before individual members begin to function as a true group. What affects Group Processes and Effectiveness?  Stages – 2 models  Group structure: o Size o Diversity o Norms o Roles o Status o Cohesiveness  Motivation Group Structure and Its Consequences  Group structure refers to the characteristics of the stable social organization of a group, the way a group is “put together.”  The most basic structural characteristics along which groups vary are size and member diversity.  Other structural characteristics are group norms, roles, status, and cohesiveness. Group Size, Satisfaction, Performance  Larger groups – less satisfaction with group membership o Fewer chances to work on and develop friendships o May increase conflict and dissension. o Many are inhibited about participating. o More difficult to identify with the success and accomplishments of the group.  The type of task and how performance is defined influences the relationship between group size and performance. Group Size and Process Losses  Problems of: o motivating and coordinating larger groups. o communication and decision making.  For additive and disjunctive tasks, larger groups might perform better up a point but at increasing costs to the efficiency of individual members.  Performance on purely conjunctive tasks should decrease as group size increases. Diversity of Group Membership  Communication and cohesiveness  Forming, storming, and norming  Once developed, can be equally cohesive and productive.  Sometimes perform better when the task requires cognitive, creativity-demanding tasks, and problem-solving.  Negative effects of “surface diversity” in age, gender, or race seem to wear off over time.  “Deep diversity” in attitudes toward work or how to accomplish a goal can damage cohesiveness Group Norms  Collective expectations that members of social units have regarding the behaviour of each other.  They are codes of conduct that specify the standards against which we evaluate the appropriateness of behaviour.  Most normative influence is unconscious.  Wh
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