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PHL283 Jan 6 2011

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Jonathan Peterson

PHL283 January 6 th Bioethics - deals with moral problems that arise in particular in the practise of medicine, healthcare, research involving the two, in policy setting that has to do with healthcare - moral issue that arises – fair distribution of healthcare resources o consider what the province will pay for – is it fair to refuse something like “in vitro-fertilization” o expensive/more experimental cancer treatments o do people have a right to have healthcare provided by the state? - the problem of abortion – is it permissible – under what circumstances o are there moral grounds to say it’s wrong? - research in medicine – the relationships with the researchers are the subjects – the issues of clinical trials o test drugs, procedures, etc. o most clinical trials are conducted in the developing world – don’t have access to healthcare, won’t be getting good care after the trial o is it acceptable to test drugs on people, without knowing the future effects o is this exploitation? - physician/patient relationships – healthcare workers and the patients o confidentiality o refusal of treatment – religious beliefs constrain – should you respect the patient’s beliefs? - how do morality and law relate to one another? o morality has to shape the law in various issues o ex. how do we define “informed consent” – ex. signing forms - how do we define the difference between morality and ethics? o morality – actual rules whereas ethics is more philosophical thinking o but regardless, its philosophical thought of right and wrong – interchangeably in this course - thinking carefully and critically and using moral reasoning to answer how we should approach the cases below - 4 principles: o 1. Respect for Autonomy – autonomous persons should be allowed to exercise their capacity for self-determinism o 2. Beneficence: we should do good to others and avoid doing them harm o 3. Utility: we should produce the most favourable balance of benefit over harm for all concerned – cost benefit analysis o 4. Justice: equals should be treated equals – like cases should be treated alike  what are the obligations of people? – what do we owe to the people who have been bad to their bodies – are people entitled to certain things The Case of Isabelle Dinoire - in 2005, received the world’s first partial face transplant - was suffering from depression – unemployed, divorced, mother - took sleeping pills and passed out – accidentally overdosed – version 1 o intentionally overdosed on sleeping pills – version 2 - had a pet black lab who bit her very severely and chewed off the lower half of her face o lips/chin/most of nose was gone - was taken to the hospital and was treated – muscles contracted and she couldn’t open her mouth that much – couldn’t eat solid foods - became seriously disfigured such t
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