January 6 th
- deals with moral problems that arise in particular in the practise of medicine,
healthcare, research involving the two, in policy setting that has to do with
- moral issue that arises – fair distribution of healthcare resources
o consider what the province will pay for – is it fair to refuse something
like “in vitro-fertilization”
o expensive/more experimental cancer treatments
o do people have a right to have healthcare provided by the state?
- the problem of abortion – is it permissible – under what circumstances
o are there moral grounds to say it’s wrong?
- research in medicine – the relationships with the researchers are the subjects
– the issues of clinical trials
o test drugs, procedures, etc.
o most clinical trials are conducted in the developing world – don’t have
access to healthcare, won’t be getting good care after the trial
o is it acceptable to test drugs on people, without knowing the future
o is this exploitation?
- physician/patient relationships – healthcare workers and the patients
o refusal of treatment – religious beliefs constrain – should you respect
the patient’s beliefs?
- how do morality and law relate to one another?
o morality has to shape the law in various issues
o ex. how do we define “informed consent” – ex. signing forms
- how do we define the difference between morality and ethics?
o morality – actual rules whereas ethics is more philosophical thinking
o but regardless, its philosophical thought of right and wrong –
interchangeably in this course
- thinking carefully and critically and using moral reasoning to answer how we
should approach the cases below
- 4 principles:
o 1. Respect for Autonomy – autonomous persons should be allowed
to exercise their capacity for self-determinism
o 2. Beneficence: we should do good to others and avoid doing them
o 3. Utility: we should produce the most favourable balance of benefit
over harm for all concerned – cost benefit analysis
o 4. Justice: equals should be treated equals – like cases should be
what are the obligations of people? – what do we owe to the
people who have been bad to their bodies – are people entitled
to certain things
The Case of Isabelle Dinoire
- in 2005, received the world’s first partial face transplant
- was suffering from depression – unemployed, divorced, mother
- took sleeping pills and passed out – accidentally overdosed – version 1
o intentionally overdosed on sleeping pills – version 2 - had a pet black lab who bit her very severely and chewed off the lower half of
o lips/chin/most of nose was gone
- was taken to the hospital and was treated – muscles contracted and she
couldn’t open her mouth that much – couldn’t eat solid foods
- became seriously disfigured such t