Class Notes (866,995)
CA (523,442)
UTM (24,491)
PHL (540)
PHL283H5 (40)

PHL283 Mar 3 2011

3 Pages

Course Code
Jonathan Peterson

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 3 pages of the document.

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade. are saying about us

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
PHL283 March 3 rd - clinical research on medical subjects - randomized controlled clinical trials o certain goal – something whether a particular intervention/treatment is effective and safe – side effects etc. – compare to others – what is safer? o in order to do that, you need to start testing on humans o what is a controlled trial?  control the variables to see the effect of one or two  minimize possibility of bias - don’t want anything to affect the outcome of the study  divide into 2 groups • experimental group – give them the drug • controlled group – not give them the drug • compare the results to eliminate the bias and possible factors that might affect the outcome - control groups: o placebo control trials: can do a trial when the controlled group is given a placebo – control psychological effects o active control trial – don’t give them a placebo, but give them an alternative treatment  experimental get the new, control get the old – compare results - randomize – to prevent more bias o have to randomly assign the participants into each group o ensure the studies are “blind” – don’t want people to know which group they’re in – experimental or controlled o want the study to be “double-blind” – both the researcher and participant should not know who is in which group – to eliminate any bias that may result - is it permissible to have a placebo controlled trial? o are permissible but only under certain circumstances Declaration of Helsinki - in the normal case, you should run an active control trial o already some accepted drug for the illness, they should get that one  best available treatment - standard of care – best available treatment – obligation to provide – should give that to the controlled group - compare the experimental with the standard of care - it’s okay to use placebo when there is no proven therapy out there for the condition - some participants will get no benefit from the study – ie. the placebo group - if assigned to the experimental group – could be worse effects in terms of the new drug - issue of carrying out research that will have no benefit to carrying out research 1. Is it ethical for a physician to recommend participation in a randomized controlled clinical trial? - what is the challenge? what is the problem with suggestion? Hellman and Hellman - obligation of a physician – to provide the best treatment available to the patient o role – tied in the relationship with the individual patient o fundamental obligation is to act in the best interest of the patient – central obligation  fidelity – faithfulness to the patient  Kantianism - obligation of a researcher – benefit humanity as a whole – utilitarianism o utilitarianism – maximizes happiness for everyone – but can be in the expense of one person – to benefit humanity in general o utilitarianism to Kantianism  not treating people as a means – treat people as an end in themselves  you owe people a certain kind of respect  worried about making sure we don’t do harm to others to benefit people o not sure where the physician’s obligations come from  special relationships = special duties (physician-patient relationship)  however, researchers don’t have special relationships – but they should also treat people properly o can utilitarianism allow for special relationships? - if you as a physician suggest a patient to enrol in a trial, you are violating your duty as a physician because you are always supposed to give/suggest the best treatment (standard of care) o don’t even know what group they will end up in – one can be toxic/better than the other o may be setting up your
More Less
Unlock Document
Subscribers Only

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
Subscribers Only
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document
Subscribers Only

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.