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Class 10

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University of Toronto Mississauga

PHL283H5S August 11thClass 10Advanced DirectivesI Finishing Up Animal ExperimentationThe Argument from Human Diversity aka The Argument from Marginal Cases1If human beings have a superior moral status to nonhuman animals then it must be because there is a morally relevant difference between humans and nonhuman animals2For any capacity X that is said to separate all humans from nonhuman animals such as rationality moral agency autonomy consciousness selfawareness it will either be the case thataSome humans lack this capacity either temporarily or permanently orbMany nonhuman animals share this capacity3If the basis of superior moral status is capacity X either many HBs infants individuals with severe cognitive disabilities have an inferior moral status OR many nonhuman animals share an equal moral status with human beingsNobis Argument against Animal ExperimentationMethodologyTo better understand more controversial moral issues we should try to use insights gained from thinking about less controversial moral issues that can be applied back to the more controversial issuesThe Argument1Harmful nontherapeutic experimentation on conscious sentient human beingsimposing disease injury addiction pain suffering fear distress confinement and early death and so onis morally wrong2This fact can be explained or justified we can identify what it is about these human beings that makes such experimentation wrong3The best explanations for why these human experiments are morally wrong support belief that similarly harmful nontherapeutic experimentation on conscious sentient animals is morally wrong also because these humans and animals share morally relevant properties4Therefore harmful nontherapeutic animal experimentation is morally wrongWhy is it wrong to harm human beings in Tuskegee or in other Immoral ExperimentsNOT because we are biologically humanNOT our personhoodNobis AnswerHarms to the victim1
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