PHL145H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: False Premise, List Of Fables Characters, Hindsight Bias

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2 Feb 2016
PHL145 January 25, 2016
Lecture 4: Memory
Firstly, what does memory have to do with arguments?
- Faulty memory can lead to false premises.
- False premises can lead to weak or invalid arguments.
Flow of information:
1) Encoding: the assimilation and accommodation of the information into the
a. Perceiving or acquiring information
b. Misperception could occur at this stage, leading to a false premise
2) Storage: adding information using induction into the brain.
a. Also storing subjective inferences to information
b. Always subconsciously active; constantly recoding, revising, and
adding information.
3) Retrieval: add information unconsciously through induction during retrieval
a. When information is retrieved, information could be added to it
b. Memory can be altered during retrieval.
Memory is not passive; it can be altered through
. Merely by
storing it, we can alter memory. As such, if memory is faulty, it could lead to weak
arguments. To reason better, one must have good memory to true and accurate
It is exceedingly hard to discern false memories from true memories. BUT we
reason from our memories. Just as memory can go wrong, our premises can go
wrong. Furthermore, false information will lead to poor contributions to our
memory. This can be further compounded by poor memory.
True information can lead to bad contributions.
- Alterations of memory can occur through weak inductive inferences.
- It is inferring wrong information or new information that was not included in
the premise.
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