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Lecture

# PHY136 - Dr. Wagih Ghobriel - Lecture Notes Chapter 1-6.docx

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School
University of Toronto Mississauga
Department
Physics
Course
PHY136H5
Professor
Wagih Ghobriel
Semester
Fall

Description
Kinematics 1-D With the absence of air resistance: the idealized motion is called free-fall and the acceleration of a freely falling body is called the acceleration due to gravity near surface of the earth. All of the free fall objects withstand the same downward acceleration towards earth’s center. Relative Motion: “Frame of Reference” is a coordinate system plus a timer Velocity of Passenger Relative to Ground = Velocity of Passenger relative to train + Velocity of the relative to ground. V PGV + VPT TG 2-D The two dimensional motion uses the vector addition / subtraction. ΔV = V f V ]i The velocity change (speed / direction) A =ΔV / Δt avg While the instantaneous acceleration is defined as the limit as Δt approaches 0 of ΔV / Δt V a/b V a/t V t/bhere: a = person, t = transportation , b = motion of another person Uniform Circular Motion V = 2πr / T where T represents the time elapsed, r = radius from the center, and v = the velocity accelerating towards the center of the circle The speed in a uniform circular motion is always constant. ΔV / V = v Δt / r  ΔV/ Δt = v / r 2 Therefore: a centripital/ r *As the acceleration aims towards the center, the V tangentlways changes throughout the motion Newton’s Law of Motion and their Application Classes of forces: Contact / Field Forces; Consist of Force and Mass Net force: the vector sum of all the forces acting on an object, written as ΣF. Directed by the free body diagram. Fx= F Cosθ Fy= F Sinθ Hooke’s law: F = -k s: a restoring force that exerts in the opposite direction of force applied K is the spring constant S is the change in the length caused by shift of the spring’s natural length - Represents the negative displacement by a stretch Normal Force: A force exerted in the opposite direction to the surface of the contact. *Can also be a representation of the pressure between the surfaces of any two objects Friction: It is a force between the surfaces of any two objects in the direction that opposes the motion. μ represents the friction constant. Weight is always considered : mg Newton’s Law of Motion  An object continues in a state of rest or in a state of motion at a constant speed along a straight line, unless compelled to change that state by a net force – forces on the object. o ΣF=0, therefore, acceleration = 0 -> V constant o Inertia  Inertial frame of reference; FoR when @ constant velocity  Inertial Mass: m of object is a quantitative measure of inertia  M inversely proportional 1/a; m1/m2 = a2/a1  The net external force, ΣF, acts on an object of mass m, results in an acceleration, a, that: o Directly Proportional to the ΣF o Has a magnitude inversely proportional to the m o The direction of the acceleration is the same as the direction of the acting ΣF  Therefore: a = ΣF / m *When the velocity of a body is constant / at rest: It’s at Equilibrium nd
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