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POL111H5 (93)
Lecture

Chapter 9 and 10

8 Pages
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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL111H5
Professor
Fiona T Rahman

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Chapter 9 and 10- Political Participation and Election and Voters 16/12/2012 10:14:00 AM Political participation is activity by individuals formally intended to influence who governs or the decisions taken by those who do. Conventional participation takes place within formal politics. Unconventional participation is, to a degree, outside or even against orthodox politics. Intensity of political engagement- Pyramid. Gladiators- campaign workers (5-7% of the population) Spectators- they vote activity and monitory the system (60%) Apathetics- people who are disengaged in politics (33%) Forms of political engagement  Voting  Campaign/canvas  Community activity  Contacting politicians Who participates, and why/why not?  Well educated  Middle aged  Middle class  White  Male – high status Why do people participate? Resources  Education, money, status, communication, and time Motive  Public service  ―Interest‖ – get involved so you can get stuff for yourself The ―law of increasing disproportion‖ seems to apply to nearly every political system; no matter how we measure political and social status, the higher the level of political authority, the greater the representation of high- status social groups. Political versus social movements Political parties- interest groups Social movements are groups emerging from society to pursue non- establishment goals through unorthodox means. Their objectives are broad rather than sectional and their style, often referred to as new politics, involves a challenge by traditional outsiders to the existing elite.  Are less conventional Relative deprivation: arises when people believe they are receiving less (value capability) than they feel they are entitled to (value expectations). Relative deprivation breeds a sense of resentment, which contributes to political discontent. Absolute deprivation, by contrast, leads to a struggle for survival and a lack of interest in wider political issues. See J-curve. Chapter 10: Elections and voters Scope and franchise: how many elected offices? Second- order elections. Who can vote? Should criminals, the insane and non-citizens resident be excluded? Flexibility for non-citizens within the EU. Elements of electoral systems Electoral system denotes all the rules governing an election. However, the term is usually restricted to three aspects: first, the structure of the ballot (e.g. how many candidates are listed per party); second, the electoral formula (how votes are converted into seats); third, districting (the division of the territory into separate constituencies) 1. Ballot (# of candidates per party)  Instances of proportional you can vote for  You spilt the voting between two different people in the party, senate and president 2. Electoral formula (translating votes into seats) o PR – plurality/majority o How to 3. Districting (outlining ridings) Different electoral formulas (know the basic differences) 1. Plurality and majority systems  Plurality system: Person with the most votes, FPTD, you can win without most votes.  Majority systems: person with the most votes and with the majority of the votes 2. Proportional systems  Parties get % of seats in the proportion to votes 3. Mixed systems  Coalition  Election a parliament Electoral systems: Legislatures Plurality and Majority Systems 1. Single- member plurality: first past the post Procedure: The candidate securing most votes (not necessarily a majority) is elected on the first and only ballot within each single-member district (SMD). Where used: 47 countries including Bangladesh, Canada, India, UK, and USA. 2. Two- round system Procedure: If no candidate wins a majority on the first ballot, the leading candidates (usually the top two) face a second, run-off election. Where used: 22 countries including Egypt, Iran, Mali, and Vietnam. 3. Absolute majority alternative vote (AV) Procedure: Voters rank candidates. If no candidate wins a majority of first preferences, the bottom candidate is eliminated and his or her votes are redistricted by second preferences. Proportional Systems 4. List System Procedure: Votes are cast for a party’s list of candidates, though in some countries the elector can also express support for individual candidates on the list. Where used: Seventy including Brazil, Czech Republic, Israel, the Netherlands, and Russia. 5. Single transferrable vote (STV) Procedure: Voters rank candidates in order to preference. Any successful candidate needs a set number of votes—the quota. All candidates who exceed this quota on first preferences are elected. Their surplus voters are then distributed according to second preferences. When no candidate has reached the quota, the bottom candidate is eliminated and these votes are also transferred. This continues until all seat are filled. Where used: Ireland, Malta. 6. Mixed member proportional (MMP) Procedure: Electors normally have two votes. One is for the district election (which uses the plurality method) and the others for PR contest (usually party list). The two tiers linked so as to deliver a proportional outcome overall. The party vote determines the number of seats to be won by each party. Elected candidate are dawn first from the party’s winners in the district contests, topped up as required by candidates from the party list. Where used: 9 countries including Germany and New Zealand. Parallel System 7. Mixed member majoritarian (MMM) Procedure: As for MMP, except the two tiers are separate, with no mechanism, to achieve a proportional result overall. Where used: 21 countries, including Japan, South Korea, and Thailand. Tactical voting: occurs when electors vote instrumentally for party or c
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