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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 %28Jan 19%29.doc

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Political Science
Peter Loewen

Thursday, January-19-12 POL111: Lecture 3 Canada in a Comparative Perspective  Game Theory  Critical Concepts  Terms: Game Theory: A fundamental tool that political scientists use to model and analyze strategic situations  Strategic Situation: A situation in which the choices of one actor depend on the choices made by other actors.  Strategic Game (Normal Form): A game represented by a matrix of payoffs, that examines strategic situations in which players make choices simultaneously  Strategy: a complete plan of acting for playing a game that specifies a player would do under every possible circumstance  Payoff-the rewards for a certain outcome  Terms associated with Strategic or Normal Form Games  Best Reply: The action that yields the highest payoff given what the other player is doing o For player A given  Two dominant strategies which is when player A and B steal  There is a Nash equilibrium which independent from dominant  There is a dominant strategy Nash equilibrium which is when both players have a Nash equilibrium and a dominant strategy  Dominant strategy: strategy that is a best reply to all the other player’s strategy  Nash a set of strategies in a game one for each player such that no such players has the incentive to unilaterally change their actions/mind  Nash equilibrium o Do we observe a Nash equilibrium here o Yes there is a Nash equilibrium  Expressed in written form (steal, steal)  Dominant strategy Nash equilibrium: a Nash equilibrium that occurs when both players have a dominant strategy Using Game Theory in Politics:  Albert Hirshman (1970) in Exit Voice and Loyalty provided a frame to understand political behavior differently  An economist not a political scientist 1 Thursday, January-19-12  Wanted to integrate these two ways of understanding human behaviour into a more complete theory o Economists often see people as consumers or producers of goods and services o Consumers can choose whether to purchase a good or service  Political scientists often see people as citizens or politicians o Citizens can choose whether to protest a government policy which can include voting o A third way?  Either can choose to accept changes they dislike and remain loyal  What do you do when there is a delirious change in your environment (some examples) o Fuel efficient cars are suddenly imported from Japan o The national currency drops in value-other nations benefit, Canadians goods get cheaper, but it is disadvantage if you go to the US and decide to purchase o The supreme court rule that prayer in public schools is unconstitutional-religious people do not benefit because they cannot practice in their school while nonreligious people do o The quality of peaches at your local fruit stand declines-apple producers might benefit, yo
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