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Lecture 5

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Political Science
Peter Loewen

Thursday, February-02-12 POL111: Lecture 5 Canada in a Comparative Perspective  Necessary and Sufficient Conditions-basic formal logic helps us understand why certain countries are democracies  Formal Logic  Determinants of Democracy  One argument is that some countries become democratic because they have a suitable culture while others do not, another argument is that it is about economics  Necessary and Sufficient Conditions? o Cause and effect o Necessary says when you have the effect you have to have the cause o Sufficient condition-a condition that is good enough for the effect but doesn’t have to be there for the effect  Necessary Condition o Something which there is an event there has to be a cause o Example: if there is fire (event) there must be oxygen (necessary condition) o Showing up in class for the class is a necessary condition for doing well on the exam o Being a human being is a necessary condition for being a citizens i.e. You can’t be an animal o Water is necessary for survival  Figure 2.1 o If there is E there has to be C, without C there is no E and if E is there C has to be there  Sufficient Conditions o Example: Fire is sufficient for smoke, if there is fire there is always smoke o Jumping is a sufficient condition for your feet to leave the ground o Is being a human being sufficient for being a Canadian citizen? No because there are 6 million people in the world but they are not all Canadians o Showing pu for an exam is the sufficient condition for doing well in the course 1 Thursday, February-02-12  Figure o If there is cause there is effect but if there is effect there is not always cause o Jumping is a sufficient condition for your feet to leave the ground but so is if you sit down and you leave the ground o The event must occur when the condition must be there but the condition doesn’t have to be there for the effect to be present  Necessary Sufficient Condition-if the cause is not there then the event is not there , if the cause is there the event has to be there o Anything that has three sides is a triangle o Having net worth of $1million is necessary and sufficient condition for being a millionaire  Understanding the World o These are one of the first tools used to understand the social world o What is necessary for democracy?  If the condition is necessary the effect has to be there o You have to take democracies look at their characteristics and which ones are necessary to be democratic  This is the comparative method  We identify on countries that are democracies, analyze what they have in common and the effect based on this  Table 2.1 o There are both democracies, ethnic homogeneity is not necessary to be a democracy o A multiparty system is not necessary for democracy because Belgium has it while the UK doesn’t o Multiparty system-multiple parties are ruling at the same time o One of the necessary conditions for democracy is a parliamentary system o Both democracies and share in common a parliamentary system so it is necessary for a democracy  So, is a parliament necessary for democracy? o Maybe wealth could be necessary for democracy o There are two effects without two causes (wealth and parliamentary system)  Figure 2.3 o But the US has a presidential system not parliamentary 2 Thursday, February-02-12 o When you compare multiple countries you can determine that a parliamentary system is necessary o Effect is democracy and cause is parliamentary system o Wealth is necessary for democracy  Is it sufficient? No  Because wealth is there for Mexico but it is not democratic so we can only say wealth may be necessary  To be sure that it was necessary for democracy you have to look at every country to be sure that they are wealthy  India is not the wealthiest but it is a democracy  Challenge is that its hard to look at all the countries at once and things change over time, this is how we would have drawn conclusion we would look at methods of agreements or disagreements and draw a deterministic conclusion  Problems with Mills Methods-of looking at countries o There as to be a cause and effect relationship, one to one relationship o Two causes cant interact, you cant say that A and B cause C o There are lots of causes (you might work hard, be smart they could interact) o You have to look at every country and in the future, you need to observe every case and instances o The social world is more complex and changing/contingent  We use probalistic inferences that say in the presence of E C is more likely to be there, or that the probability is higher if C is there o You could say that if you choose to go out for the weekend, you can say that the restaurant will have a line you not sure though, if you spend not doing work you might not do well  Logic o Humans could fall for arguments that are not logical or coherent ie. If you follow religion X you will be happier (claim) and if you don’t follow you will be unhappy o If you follow this financial plan you will be rich-illogical, if you don’t follow it you will not be rich o Its useful to understand social and political world as well as for our lives  When is an argument coherent and when is it not? 3 Thursday, February-02-12 o Sometime data will tell us something is true or not  What is an argument?  What’s a premise? A statement that is presumed to be true in the context of the argument (you presume that the religion statement is true)  What’s a conclusion (claim that is thought to be supported by the premise)  An argument is valid-if you accept the premise you have to accept the conclusion o Invalid argument will be when you do accept the premise but not the conclusion o I want you to get a good job and put money in RESP you could believe it but you may not follow it because there are other ways of getting rich  Categorical Syllogism o Major premi
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