POL113- November 12, 2012
Textbook Notes on FASCISM
Strongly believe in violence
Uses violence against those it considers the enemy (Bolshevik, communists,
foreigners, homosexuals, immigrants, intellectuals, Jews, Muslims, POC,
Within all fascisms to see human beings most alive when they are being most
It is often a synonym for bad, evil, intolerant, and violent.
Voluntarism- human will is itself capable of altering the environment and
world to fit their image of what it should be
The nation- either one is a member of it or one is not.
Values are national values
One achieves the realization of human potential only in and through the
Nations are groups defined with a common attachment; language, geography,
culture, history, destiny, rituals, etc.
Are said to accommodate, preserve, and protect the existence of these groups
In fascism, the nation possesses a distinct and singular history, a postulated
unity and cohesiveness, and a destiny of its own.
The nation is based on concrete cultural and historical achievements
Has a unique identity- Mussolini called it a personality of its own
The individual does not exist without the nation
The individual can only exist within the state
The state is the possessor of right and morality and in turn it gives meaning
to individuals who are part of it as members of the nation.
The state is the institutional manifestation of the nation
Without either the individual human being would simply not exist
The state only accepts the individual if their interests coincide with those of
Any rights the individuals possess are granted, and may be removed, by the
State; similarly, the private interests of individuals can only make sense
within what the State makes possible as “privacy”.
Fascism believes that liberal democratic thought is predicted upon
assumptions of selfishness and conflict, and as such prevents human beings
from living in “moral” and nationally cohesive association with one another.
Individualistic liberal thinking leads to conflict, disunity, chaos, and even
decline in society.
No naturally free individual within fascism- There is the member of the
organic nation whose range of experience in terms of “freedom” is shaped by
and within the nation’s moral entity: The State.
In liberalism, the State is designed to reflect the interests of the individual In fascism, the State is designed to reflect the general will of the nation
Fascism is anti-individualist as well.
Fascism is also anti-Marxist
Find that communism is one of the prime sources of national disunity
because it preaches unending class conflict and therefore divides the people
rather than uniting them
They believe that Marxism pits the worker against the capitalist within the
nation which is morally wrong- they belong in the same nation/ group not
Uses socialist means for fascist ends when it comes to economy.
National prosperity gives more power to the nation, and so whatever helps to
bring about that prosperity is morally right and necessary
Mussolini adopted the corporatism policy
Corporatism is designed to remove all conflict within the nation’s economic
sector in such a way as to avoid liberalism’s uncontrolled and individualistic
competition and Marxism’s revolutionary class warfare between workers
It is a way of conceptualizing society and organizing production within it so
as to avoid social fragmentation
Everything is split up into different sectors- agriculture, teaching, doctors,
industrial, etc.- referred to as occupational groups
Within each corporation, labor ad management, rather than attempting to
win gains for their respective groups, work together to achieve a unity of
purpose in pursuit of the goal of greater productivity.
Corporations of corporatism make decisions on wages and production
quotas on an industry wide basis.
Fascism is very violent
If anything threatens the nation, violence is used- assassinations
Also fascists believe that in order to show everyone the strength and
greatness of the nation, war is used to show power.
Even though it’s unnecessary and no one is an enemy
The leader knows the general will of the nation, interprets it, and
communicates it to the people in a way that they will understand and be lef
to fulfill its commands.
The leader is the key to all fascism