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POL113- Fascism Notes.docx

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Political Science
Anna Korteweg

POL113- November 12, 2012 Textbook Notes on FASCISM  Strongly believe in violence  Uses violence against those it considers the enemy (Bolshevik, communists, foreigners, homosexuals, immigrants, intellectuals, Jews, Muslims, POC, traitor, etc).  Within all fascisms to see human beings most alive when they are being most brutal  It is often a synonym for bad, evil, intolerant, and violent.  Voluntarism- human will is itself capable of altering the environment and world to fit their image of what it should be  The nation- either one is a member of it or one is not.  Values are national values  One achieves the realization of human potential only in and through the nation.  Nations are groups defined with a common attachment; language, geography, culture, history, destiny, rituals, etc.  Are said to accommodate, preserve, and protect the existence of these groups  In fascism, the nation possesses a distinct and singular history, a postulated unity and cohesiveness, and a destiny of its own.  The nation is based on concrete cultural and historical achievements  Has a unique identity- Mussolini called it a personality of its own  The individual does not exist without the nation  Anti-liberalism  The individual can only exist within the state  The state is the possessor of right and morality and in turn it gives meaning to individuals who are part of it as members of the nation.  The state is the institutional manifestation of the nation  Without either the individual human being would simply not exist  The state only accepts the individual if their interests coincide with those of the state.  Any rights the individuals possess are granted, and may be removed, by the State; similarly, the private interests of individuals can only make sense within what the State makes possible as “privacy”.  Fascism believes that liberal democratic thought is predicted upon assumptions of selfishness and conflict, and as such prevents human beings from living in “moral” and nationally cohesive association with one another.  Individualistic liberal thinking leads to conflict, disunity, chaos, and even decline in society.  No naturally free individual within fascism- There is the member of the organic nation whose range of experience in terms of “freedom” is shaped by and within the nation’s moral entity: The State.  In liberalism, the State is designed to reflect the interests of the individual  In fascism, the State is designed to reflect the general will of the nation  Fascism is anti-individualist as well.  Fascism is also anti-Marxist  Find that communism is one of the prime sources of national disunity because it preaches unending class conflict and therefore divides the people rather than uniting them  They believe that Marxism pits the worker against the capitalist within the nation which is morally wrong- they belong in the same nation/ group not separate ones  Uses socialist means for fascist ends when it comes to economy.  National prosperity gives more power to the nation, and so whatever helps to bring about that prosperity is morally right and necessary  Mussolini adopted the corporatism policy  Corporatism is designed to remove all conflict within the nation’s economic sector in such a way as to avoid liberalism’s uncontrolled and individualistic competition and Marxism’s revolutionary class warfare between workers and owners  It is a way of conceptualizing society and organizing production within it so as to avoid social fragmentation  Everything is split up into different sectors- agriculture, teaching, doctors, industrial, etc.- referred to as occupational groups  Within each corporation, labor ad management, rather than attempting to win gains for their respective groups, work together to achieve a unity of purpose in pursuit of the goal of greater productivity.  Corporations of corporatism make decisions on wages and production quotas on an industry wide basis.  Fascism is very violent  If anything threatens the nation, violence is used- assassinations  Also fascists believe that in order to show everyone the strength and greatness of the nation, war is used to show power.  Even though it’s unnecessary and no one is an enemy  The leader knows the general will of the nation, interprets it, and communicates it to the people in a way that they will understand and be lef to fulfill its commands.  The leader is the key to all fascism
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