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Political Science
Lee Ann Fujii

POL114 – Lecture – January 12 This is a compilation of Weber’s State – it is a concept that covers politics and territory reading summaries and lecture materials combined A state is a concept of organizing authority across a territory. according to the specified Weber’s Definition: A human community that (successfully) dates. claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory.  Example: In practice money is value; in reality money is paper and sheet metal, so hence we reify money. The state will remove anyone who challenges their monopoly and can exert their force (i.e. decimating the Mafia, Drug Cartel, gangs etc.) OR getting a ticket, not paying it, the state seizing your license and having the authority to place you in jail if you were caught driving without the license OR if you don’t pay your taxes and the IRS takes your possessions. Weber would believe Somalia is not a state or it is in question because the state does not successfully claim the monopoly.  Notion of territory is imperative to the state  Ex. The US cannot go into Mexico to chase a criminal once that person has crossed borders…the US has no authority unless agreed upon by the 2 states. That’s why it was a contested act when the US got OSAMA in Pakistan without the permission of the Pakistani government) --- this must be sanctioned in some type of agreement. THE MONOPOLY OF THAT STATE IS ONLY IN ITS OWN TERRITORY. States express force, the state itself is dominating because it has a monopoly a state is an organized domination so why do people obey? --- Because of the following sources of authority. SOURCES OF AUTHORITY:  Traditional Authority…Anyone ruling by divine right (i.e. kings “deemed by God”)  Charismatic Rule  people believe in that person (i.e. Jesus, Hitler, Oprah)  individuals that have followers, who follow because they see something special in them.  Legal Rational – ruled by people’s belief, “I follow the rules because I believe in them” ____________________________________________________________________________________ State Hierarchy/organization: Bureaucratization of a state: In a state there are:  Professional politicians (president etc.)  Professional administrators (work for state not president)  Expertise (president’s cabinet  i.e. Bush administration, Obama administration that work FOR president and leave when the president’s term ends)  Limited political appointee (person is there b/c the president wants that person there i.e. Hilary Clinton is Obama’s appointee of foreign relations because he wants her there) Notes / Jan 19 Readings Chapter 2 - From Phnom Pehn to Sarajevo Kahmer Rouge (KR) – Was responsible for massacres (Chinese assisted to help by not giving the KR weapons) Phnom Pehn – Was not as bad, but was a hard line that imprisoned and tortured political opponents (the PP was supported by Russia and India) __________________________________________________________________________________  KR didn’t do its part it in assisting the Cambodian electorate, since it did not allow the UN into its territories because they claimed Vietnamese were still in Cambodia. They intimidated many nations, and those other nations became weary of deploying their soldiers (alike Netherlands who prolonged sending battalions and the French refusing to occupy “wild” and remote areas often guarded by the KR). This made the KR seem more powerful “could lead the KR to believe that the international community will give in to pressure from them” (58).  But there were distractions from Yugoslavia that prolonged assistance. EU wanted recognition of countries (independence) from Croatia (since the Serbs ruled there the UN ordered a protection force), Bosnia and Macedonia.  In Bosnia Serbs demanded “ethnically pure areas” by killing Croatians and Muslims, and they got away with murder since the UN was not present at the time. When the UN got there Boutros-Ghali ordered an evacuation for most of UN officials since the Serbs were not participating and there was no will to proceed in a seize fire – or even to attempt and make peace. POL114 – Lecture- January 19, 2012 Where do states come from?  The “state”  Multiple criteria for state-ness State = relation of domination (they put authorities in a society in domination)  Why do people obey states?  Traditional, charismatic, legal ration (explained in detail in following lectures)  Tilly Today (analyzing states from past to present) Where do weberian states come from  WARS (wars make states). Centuries of war making allowed regulations of financing the wars through taxation. War making lead to bureaucracies (Tilly called apparatus) – (i.e. ministers etc.) How did kings get money from war  they borrowed money (presently, the US borrows from China in order for the US to have money to spend in the Iraq war). They also extracted the money (taxes and raised taxes), kings borrowed money from large banking families in Europe. The tax levels rarely went down after the war ended. (At times people revolted and when they did the state made concessions – and it worked at times).  The statehood of Africa/Asia was granted through colonialization (Brits, Belgians, Dutch)  other states acknowledged these states and they gave them money (Cambodia, Somalia). These states are given money by outside states. How did kings get more efficient?  They started to raise their own armies by buying them off, exempting them from taxation—turning rivals and predators into friends. In 100 yrs time monarchs had better armies, most monarchs had their own armies, they didn’t have to rely on other people to bring armies. Tilly’s Argument: Emerging states used violence for war making (eliminating internal rivals). According to Tilly, the more costly the activity, the bigger the bureaucracy. Why are states like rackets? ***CLIP SHOWN IN CLASS*** (Racket = clip illustrates a shop owner and a mobster going into business, the shop owner hands the mobster cash and more to come next week)  What makes that a racket?  Extortion for protection, (paying mobster so he doesn’t hurt owner) -- if owner does not pay the mobster, the mobster may do benevolent things to the owner.  A racket in the context of a state: As Tilly puts it the government often symbolizes the biggest threat to their people. USA vs. IRAQ - protecting the American people…they fund the war. When the state goes to war it takes revenues that could have gone to schools, healthcare etc. (it rechannels revenues). POL114 – Lecture and Notes January 26, 2012 What Do States Do? Notes and Tutorial January 26 Politics of Measurement Land is evaluated according to what it yields (The amount of seed sown to a field is in fact a relatively good proxy for average yield) – the amount of seed sown would indicate how productive a field has been or is – essentially its ability to provide subsistence. States also  standardize and have uniform measurements (extract exact amount of taxes – this gives the state legitimacy, not taking too much or too little. In fact, states gave surnames to people so it would be easier to track the people and hence track individual taxes and family taxes -- Benefits of standardization effective trading (monetary value, grater economy) POL114 – Lecture – January 26 Once modern states come into being, what do they do?  Challenge particular ways of doing everything, they have their own ways…own ways of buying, of inhabiting houses, building houses, estimating distances, own way of assigning spaces for common use, own language/dialect.  They use measures that are meaningful to them.  This enables bureaucrats to know everything – like revenue, how many student graduates, power to know everything under the standardized care. Also, standardization allows bureaucrats to see what is going on in their administrative area/sector without trouble.  Systems of measuring were marked by power relations – (i.e. baker example – increasing price but decreasing proportions) States Objectives  raise revenue (taxes- states come up with schemes to enhance taxation limits [i.e. age 18 example so people won’t try to cheat the system), raise army (expand territory) and keep local peace --- if they don’t do this they lose revenue, they lose a border when attacked.  States keep records – through census other information to know how many people are paying taxes, how much tax revenue is approximated, how many births there will be, how many projected schools should be built to support growing population, what will be in demand. States impose systems so they can see who you are. Katherine Duburry (Article on Rwanda)Talked about policy of forced villagization so the state can access those people efficiently. States like systems that are uniform, things that are stable – don’t change: How states see people  adaptable, customary, universal, static, rational, legible/illegible POL114 – Lecture and Notes – February 02, 2012 WHAT A DEMOCRACY IS (and is not) - Lecture Schmitter and Karl’s definition….rulers are held accountable for their actions in the public realm by citizens acting through the competition and cooperation of their elected representatives. (p.76) There are different forms of democracy in different countries but despite their differences they are still democracies (i.e. US and Canada) What they all have in common?  ( notions as listed in Schmitter and Karl) Rulers coming from a competitive system/process…then once ruler is in power they are held accountable for their actions. Majority rule concept, but has interests concerning minorities. Democracy involves cooperation, not only leaders but citizens. They also include representatives (reps of the people) also chosen through competitive means and also held accountable. Below are features that distinguish democratic from non democratic Procedures in Democracy… Conditions that must be present for modem political democracy ("polyarchy") to exist: 1) Control of policy is vested
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