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Lecture 2

POL114 lecture 2.docx

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Political Science
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POL114: Lecture 2, Sep. 18,2013 Approaches to the study of IR/Global politics Realism: Realists see the world as a collection of sovereign states in constant competition for power and security, raison d’etat -analogy to Thomas Hobbes “State of Nature” in which life is nasty brutish and short -human nature: selfish/evil -Anarchy, economic interdependence will not lead to peace -self help -balance of power -security dillema -0 Sum Game Any gain in security/power of one player is a loss to others -central problem is avoiding war -relevant actors are states -outlook: pessimism -policy: increase power (military and economic) -people are generally viewed as self-interested creatures, and political power merely corrupts them further **Structural Realists: emphasize the anarchic nature of the system as a determinant of state behavior (Kenneth Waltz) - No central authority exists to enforce and ensure state compliance with international rules or norms Liberalism: Liberals don’t reject the description of the international system of realist but argue that just as anarchy was overcome through the creation of the rule of law within states, it can be overcome through increased cooperation and the development of international institutions globally -human nature: good/ cooperative but corruptible -central problem: encouraging cooperation -global politics is a multiple sum game (cooperation > win/win>peace) -relevant actors: states, MNC’s, international organizations, NGO’s… -motives: rational self interest, justice, peace, prosperity… -outlook: optimism -policy: increase trade, develop institutions -Immanuel Kant and democratic peace theory-idealism \ Critical perspectives Marxism/Dependency/World systems Theory Just as Marx viewed capitalist societies as based on an exploitative class system (capitalism) modern Marxists see the world as defined by an exploitative system of core states which dominate the dependent states of the periphery. -central problem: exploitation, marginalization, imperialism, neo- colonialism… -human nature: humans have no nature only a history (depends on circumstances) -relevant actors: classes, groups, MNC’s, states -motives: greed, power, liberation, justice… -outlook: pessimism in the absence of revolution -policy: promote revolutionary change overthrowing capitalism> socialism Environmentalis
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