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Political Science
Clifford Orwin

 Starting the class of with the anxiety alleviating remarks; if I thought that the purpose of the Republic were to expound this city, if I thought Plato was seriously proposing this as the best city to realize, or real obstacle, a model for actual cities, then I would spend more time on it. - Not the view of the city at all, on the contrary, this city is only a side show or ‘set-up’ - We’ve got to remember the purpose of the city; all in realistic device - Would have been expected to learn the every institution of this model city - Purpose of the city: city began as the philosopher’s linguistic device - Getting bigger in the process of describing justice – easier to find out what the justice is in the city – serving what individuals learned about justice – whether justice would be good for the individual or not (profitable); proving Thrasymachus view point of the justice  Education of the Guardians; Socaretes extends the censorship to the human quality and psychology lies within – policy to the total human environment (plan, architecture, to the interior design) - Everyone harmonious unless they have read about the poetic and musical insights - City of Speech: a planned community in terms of reasons and justice - Design of the environment will lead to the design of the soul to the faith that within the designed community, society will be a better place (Lockean thoughts) - Notion of the harmonious total environment - The known exposition of Socrates: malleability, festivity of the human soul - Reasonableness must preceded with reason, reason is self-rational phenomenon, and profound as of it is to one  402D-403C, Socrates offers erratic Glaucon the compensations for all the sacrifices he had to make for the attractions of the feverish, tireless march to the wayside of justice - Morally steer than the original city  To Glaucon’s contempt, How does Socrates offer allegiance with him in terms of the city; beings worthy of considerations - Beautiful beings: not body, but of pertaining to the soul; perfectly beautiful and harmonious souls - Only a purified Eros would be only worthy to the purified objects - ‘Look, but hardly touch’ would be more frustrating to Eros than ‘Look, but don’t touch’  Discussion of Medicine - Socrates had it in for doctors, but why? Each of the other political philosophers such as Rousseau also had its animus towards medicine. He takes very moderate view over here - Very marred – interest to us; so much tax paid for the medicine? Socrates choice of the medical authority? - Homer (Homeric medicine) it appears that he is infallible here – most of the practices are deviations from here  If the hero is seriously wounded, you give him gallon of wine with some cheese braided in it; Socrates regards this treatment as the “politic” one - Political treatments; no burdensome and tedious treatments, remove him from the frontline and just sideline him in deathly; „we want a rough and ready treatment‟  Ex) Poor and ailing artisan: kill me or cure me, but don’t drag on - Socrates’ example of the wrong sort of medicine is Herodicus, famous contemporary physician who is sickly but developed techniques for prolonging life, therefore, an old man died and devoted all his life to nothing more than prolonging it; Glaucon, that‟s not the life worth living - Best city agreeing to Homeric medicine, useless harmful medicine of the Herodicus abolished  Is there any contemporary way of putting what Socrates is concerned about here? The quality of life of the patients, relation between the sophisticated medicine for the prolonging life and concerns of it to the patients, but because they are not approaching this question from an individual perspective way that we tend to do, but perspective as the founders of the city, - All the quality of the civic life in the society dominated by such medicine; proposed to the policy of Euthanasia with the standard of the life worthy of continuation, robust health could reattribute to the city as the soldiers fine for the city; if someone is not ill enough that through the recourse of treatments he can cure himself, that is to the advantage to both him and the city; the opposite case scenario would be burdensome to the city, and better to be left dying - Good of the city; concerns to Socrates and those young interlocutors as the founders - Why is there an existence of the sophisticated medicine incompatible with the civic life? Wouldn’t Herodicus be better than clueless Homeric doctors, also wouldn’t it be more helpful for warriors to maintain robust health? Wouldn’t he be the one to permit healthy people to remain healthy? Wouldn’t he be the one to rehabilitate the medicine would seek to restore the wounded and disabled to a useful life? So, don’t we want the Herodicus’ medicine under strict political supervision?  No. Why not? In keeping with the arguments, not even the rulers of the city for all their rigorous education could be trusted with the medicine. Such medicine depends heavily on the body knowledge largely independent of the soul. It is not the virtue that prolongs life, but of sophisticated medicine that has nothing to do with virtue. In the context of the civic virtue, especially in the extremely high level of virtue, city of speech would demand that knowledge is corrupted;  Once people know how to use the systems of such medicine, they will insist on it. Ex) A rulers with a sick child – you know there is the medicine to cure the child, under the rules of the city it’s strictly forbidden but the rulers would not submit to such rule to their advantage - Forget about virtue, think only about perpetuating life, in worse, they would redefine the virtue itself as to those habits of life conducing to survival - So to prolonging life; valetudinarianism, ridiculously contemptible, we should be ashamed of it, health is the life and means to action - Only human life worth living is one of indifference to death; proper human activity that life is only worth to be fully be devoted to it, the life devoted only to stay alive is useless to ourselves and all the others - Is the only basis of ignorance that life devoted to virtue would be possible? The life that has been lived in ignorance, can we even call it virtue? If the soldiers live as they do, on the state of the premise, that virtue, itself is the only means to prolonging their life because they are unaware of this alternate means of doing so, aren‟t they pursuing virtue to the wrong reason? Haven‟t they failed to make the choice that would establish them to be virtuous? Or, can some human beings face death also facing the truth of the death? - Namely, that no virtue would be able to protect us from it - Socrates: life of truth rather than the shadow of the ignorance, how is this section related to the radical reforms of the poets and music? It too presents the devotion to city as resting huge censorship, an education that deliberately conceals the fundamental truths about the life, independence of the soul and the body to the soul  Noble Lie - Rulers from the warriors; the most stringent task, depends on how well their education is taken, how in labor and superior to every argument in the compulsion and temptation for their loyalty to the city - S concern that would be good or worthy of individual/ what rulers and soldiers fully devoted for the public good – ignorant of the possible tension requirements of the city on one hand and the self preservation and self devotion - Life of devotion to the higher things which is led by the awareness of the full mortality - Resort to the ‘lie’not only subjects but the rulers themselves (414c-e) p.93 - Why should be s shamed to tell the lie? Awareness no one would believe it is a lie (Glaucon‟s response), if the feasibility of the best city depends on a lie, but if it is a lie that no one would believe, then the best city is not feasible. Why should the feasibility of the best city depend on this particular model? - Earth is literally the mother of all citizens; all citizens literally brothers and sisters. They were born citizens strung from the earth, fully grown, into the specific class of the citizens with tools of the trade in their hand. The dimension of them submitting themselves to the particular class of citizenship is considered ‘grim.’ - Full literal naturalist life of their citizenship and their membership of the particular class by birth. They are citizens, nothing but, citizens - Neither the city nor their place here is anyway contingent or problematic; the scenario is their devotion - Preclude any appeal (Glaucon‟s whole speech depended on this appeal) from the view of the society to nature; city exists by convention and nature and the matter of nature that subverts the city (also our attachment to the city and its justice) - Socrates’ noble lie would render Glaucon’s question completely impossible; no distinctions between the city and the nature, fully natural city, no possible rivalries between the family in the city redefined as out literal families our fellow citizens (all equally related); whatever devotion that might have gone to family, can only go to the city - No perspective beyond the city, no world elsewhere, the civic perspective is the comprehensive perspective - Noble lie attempts in speech is the evolution of the family, the re-conception of the city as one big happy family; it rests on the most fundamental nature about human beings, the way in particular of the bodies sprung from other particular bodies, from other human beings to the understanding of exclusive human relationships - Not the city but the family evokes the most powerful attachments; no one has ever argued to evoke some metaphors on citizenship - Political metaphor of the fraternity, logical implausible conclusion as literally siblings with no parents but the city itself, their place of the city in itself as natural as the citizenship - Perhaps in the later generations they might believe it (suggested by Glaucon) – he does not think they would come to believe it themselves; they might believe that the city originally came into being this way - Athenians did believe this – their ancestors sprung from the earth of Adam; ordinary uneducated people, but would that be enough to ensure the complete devotion to the city? Depends on the cases, it was enough for the citizens for Athens, but in some places it was proved wrong - Socrates position; every generation of the city must believe it as itself, fully ranked within the city - Glaucon suggests that most of the citizens would be caused to doubt the lie, namely experience in sexual reproduction and city life perpetuating itself – the earth is not going to bring generations of citizens  Second Part of the Lie: Myth of the Medals - All the citizens are brothers but there are admixtures in their souls, fully fraternal but they are not equal since they are all brothers parents with own souls sometimes give birth to raisin ones and vice versa - Child must be promoted or devoted the case may be; the God is threatened if there is every a wretched soul in the ruling class, the destruction of the city must result – policy of distributed justice or equal opportunity - No one is denied the rightful place of the city as the consequence of the birth - A perfectly level plain field, this part of the myth takes the entire human rights commission - If this policy is so entirely desirable, why does it need a lie and the threat to support it? Equal opportunity for all? Children of the higher class with lesser abilities will be demoted whereas the children of the lower born class with more abilities will be promoted; High born families inclined to put their children to the capable; natural preference for themselves and their own - Socrates did not prefer to his own children to others - As in part of their preference to their own children, they can’t help over estimating, taking view of the children Wha
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