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POL 200 Lec Nov 22

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Political Science
Clifford Orwin

POL 200 Lec Nov 22, 2012 Aristotle Chapter 10, Book 1 -the natural economy -acquires things based on their use value, not for their profit -the profit motive is unnatural -ban on usury -interest (togos; also means offspring) is money born of money -offspring are natural but metal doesn’t have offspring; its unnatural -modern economics means to prohibit interest is to prohibit banking -economists think increase is good -Aristotle thinks money should just be for the sake of use, not for leisure (freedom to en- gage in politics, friendship, and philosophy -life of economic stability at a good level (one that supports the above 3) is a good life, to strive for more is unnatural -Thales, man who rented the olive presses offseason because he used philosophy to predict a good year -didn’t want to make money but to prove that philosophy was useful Chapters 12 & 13, Book 1 -noblest forms of household rule -husband over wife -husband acquires, wife uses (more noble) -parents over children -benign rule by superiors over inferiors -rule of husband over wife is not monarchic like that of parents over children -since both parents are monarchic rulers over children, then the wife is equal to the father -so their relationship is political, not monarchic -the wife is both equal and unequal to the husband -women aren’t less intelligent than men, the authority of their intelligence in their souls is less so than in men -Herodetus’ history of the Egyptian ruler with the foot pan (chamberpot) -persuades females to believe Aristotle thought females were actually superior POL 200 Lec Nov 22, 2012 The Best Regime, Book 2 -the best city of plato means the best regime -citizens most argue about what kind of society they should live in, not whether or not they should live in a society -different regimes imply different notions of the goal of that city -not everyone agrees on the goal in a city -not like a rowing club, where everyone rows toward the same goal -rather, the city is like a rowing and curling club depending on the regime -ex. Germany was not them same under the Nazis as it is now -today we take liberal democracy for granted, politicians don’t have regime debates, just secondary issue debates -Greeks, it wasn’t debating which party is more democratic/ egalitarian -it focused on whether democracy or its contenders were the most just regimes -regime contestations are the most bitter ones -back then and in some places today, politics was truly a blood sport -other regime versions -those presented by writers in theory -those in practice (Sparta, Carthage, etc.) -city is a partnership (book 1, association) in all things or just some things? -talks about the republic -chapter 1, book 2: which is better? what we have now or what is described in the republic? -he doesn’t ask whether the city of the republic is a good or bad regime, he just asks if its better than what they have now -the fundamental criticism of Plato’s city of speech is that it is not clear whether anyone in the city is happy -Aristotle criticizes Plato’s communism (women and children are considered property) -city of speech is presented as a partnership of all things -he also criticizes the lack of slaves in the city -Aristotle is concerned with what is practical and possible (paper) -that city is best which is most like a single body-Plato -implies a partnership in everything, a community in everything (critisizes this) -Aristotle- a house is more one than a city, and an individual is more one than a house- hold POL 200 Lec Nov 22, 2012 -society is based on many-ness, not oneness -not everyone has the same concerns (parents have different concerns than non-parents, rich than poor, weavers than miners) -criticizes Plato’s understanding that all would think of everyone as their own -2 ways of think of mine -mine and mine only (like a parent’s child) -mine and everyone else’s in the city (community park) -denies we can remove the exclusiveness of families like Plato thought -“what belongs to the most people receives the least care” (communism) -tragedy of the commons -Aristotle- so its better to have a real cousin of one’s own than a child of convention -cousin is a remote relation compared to parents, children, or siblings -in city of speech, there are no cousins, only children -Aristotle believes its still better to have a cousin you know is your real cousin than a son you don’t know is actually yours -rather than be affectionate to a few we would be indifferent to all in the city of speech -the republic abolishes property -to abolish private property would remove opportunities to build moral character (like learning justice or generosity) -these can’t be practiced in a city where no one owns anything -experiences teach that people quarrel more over what people hold in common than what they don’t -ex. tearing down the fence between each other’s backyards, saying we’ll both have to care for the yard, who gets the blame when the yard degrades or someone has to work harder for it -property creates transparency of responsibility, we know what we must care for and who’s responsibility -Aristotle doesn’t deny that there will still be conflicts over private property -tax credit for charitable donations -government offers us tax credits to encourage us to pay for charities that sup- port society as opposed to many European cities where the government does most of this (total socialism) -education -Plato said communism was necessary because education was not enough to promote communal unity POL 200 Lec Nov 22, 2012 -Aristotle’s approach to the republi
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