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Sept. 17 – Basic Paradigms.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Political Science
Todd Hall

Sept. 17 – Basic Paradigms Liberalism and realism: interest is given. Socialism constructivist: interest constructed Unfinished Business - Michelle Fuzo – postmodernist - Taxonomy of Power... RELATIONAL SPECFICITY Direct Diffuse Interactions of specific actors Compulsory Institutional Social relations of constitutions Structural Productive Paradigm: a philosophical or theoretical framework - Lenses – simplifies the world  obscures certain things and focuses on other things - “isms” are just as a choice of study Realism Thucydides (460-395 BC) – not realist but if read his work, seems as though he is o Greek historian – Peloponnesian war  War against Athens and Sparta o Systematic factors in Greek that inevitably led to war o Key realist ideas: 1) All actors of war had grievances – real cause: expansion of Athens alarmed the Spartans  Not only one event that caused the war; just growth of power over other – structural, pre-existing conditions 2) Melian dialogue  Milos neutral in war – Athens disagreed  Athens gives option of declaring allegiance Athens or be destroyed  Melians appeal to protection to Gods  Athens say “weak will suffer” – idea of realists – weak cannot protect; inevitable to fall  Melians appeal to sense of justice  “powerful exploit the weak” – Athenians explain – sense of nature - Constant references to realist theories  world is not what we want, have to see it as it is Niccolo Machiavelli (1469 – 1527) “The end justifies the means” “A prince who wants to maintain a state is often forced not to be good” – doing what’s prudent - Diplomat and philosopher - Lived in Florence and was exiled and tried - Wanted to write a book on teaching proper diplomacy o Rules of sovereignty  Internal sovereignty – power not questioned  External policy – diplomacies and institutions  To keep and maintain power, ignore moral and religious matters  Only virtue: prudence  Act when it benefits you Thomas Hobbes - “Leviathan” - “State of Nature” – pessimists - Hobbes proposed men without government =
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