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Oct. 15 - The Third Image.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Political Science
Todd Hall

Oct. 15 – The Third Image Review: - Waltz’s structure neo-realism o Different type of structures (polar) - Mearsheimer’s offensive realism o Specific regions => hegemony - Defensive realism o A theory, much more mistake, on structural level - Power transition theories Challengers: - Neo-liberalism (also called institutionalism) - World systems theory - Constructivism Neo-liberal Approaches - Big in 70s and 80s - Neo-liberals believed cooperation is possible to improve stability of IR - Objections: o Realists = ridiculous = today’s friend can become tomorrow’s enemy o Neo-liberalists = accept that the world is anarchic, that material matters, that self- interest exists (self-help) but still believe cooperation is possible Challenges why cooperation impossible - The Prisoner’s Dilemma => look in book o Two robbers, given three options:  One rats the other out, the ratter goes free, the other harsh sentence  Both rat out, cooperating, minimum sentence  Both stay quiet, both go to jail for low sentence (same amount of time) o Problem: it makes more sense to confess because if the other side keeps their mouth shut, you can get away free. If they talk, you end up with a knife in your back. o One place where you cannot unilaterally make your decision => best rational thing is to confess  But if confess, get less then would have if kept quiet o Individually rational thing to do is not the collective rational thing to do = does create the greatest outcome for the whole Cooperation: Mission Impossible? - Example: in 1972, during the cold war, the Soviet Union and US signed the biological toxins agreements - Made sense for both sides to not engage in this kind of warfare (causes irreparable damage) - Soviet Union said the US signed this but they will use this it to continue development while the SU stop o So then, SU then went ahead and created a factory, had a secret cover story and secret documents, that suggested it was a medical building o It was actually creating anthrax and such bio toxin materials o One point, there was an accident. Some of the anthrax got out, some citizens died. Blamed on bad meat. - This is classic example of cooperative situation where it makes more sense for both to go on but since worried about actions of others, ended up in death of citizens  This gives the notion that if states did not develop nuclear weapons, everyone would be better off but since everyone is worried about the opposing side, development takes place The Evolution of Cooperation – Robert Avelrod - Believes despite this, cooperation can still take place - He suggested: setting up computer program and have people internationally send in strategies for Prisoner’s Dilemmas and seeing which one had the biggest payoff - Strategy that won: tit-for-tat o If you defect on me, I defect on you o If you cooperate, I cooperate o Through playing in this way, establish cooperation  This helped establish something: o If you played Prisoner’s Dilemma once, makes sense to defect o But if it happens again –repeat play; possible future interactions – affects how the game is played o Argued then that you have to look at significance of iterated games Iterated Games - Repeated games, the possibility for cooperation increases = stable pattern of cooperation occurs - Apply this to US and Canada for example o Does not make sense for Canada to try and stiff the US since they can retaliate and we end up worse off than before o Reason to keep cooperating because benefits of iterated cooperation are greater Neoliberal Institutionalists - Suggested creating conditions that foster iterated cooperation => institutions - Can create situations where repeated interactions add incentive to cooperate, makes defection more difficult then maybe can facilitate stable patterns of cooperation o Therefore reduce amount of conflicts After Hegemony – Robert Keohane - Writing late 70s, early 80s: it was believed that US hegemony was on the decline - The story Keohane was telling that when the US was strong, it was able to create all these institutions = these institutions will continue working even without the US, strong power, pushing it - Keohane believes intuitions will endure and facilitate patterns of cooperation => goes against what the realists argue (need a central power to enforce cooperation)  Institution: persistent sets of rules and practices that prescribe roles, constrain activity and shape the expectations of actors (generally synonymous with regime)  International organization: institutions with formal procedures and formal membership - All international organizations can be understood in institutions but not all institutions are internal organizations - Institutions is looser; set of rules and practices (ex. marriage) = no formal organization o No central body implement procedures - Keohane says institutions promotes cooperation through these five mechanisms: o Transparency of information  Create ways to allow states to see what other states are doing => likelihood to defect, cooperate, etc  Create a situation where you can monitor all of the members => prevents free riding or defecting  Kicked out if notice not behaving the way the state should be  IAEA and North Korea  IAEA monitors whether states are in compliance with safeguards  When North Korea signed agreement that would freeze its reactors, IAEA set up cameras to monitors to see if North Korea were disarming those missiles  Cameras allows if other side complying to their side of the agreement => if defecting, you know how to respond o Create focal points  Organizing certain places of agreement through institutions, does make cooperation easier  Examples: numerous things states have to cooperate on (electricity, mail, etc)  ITU: international telecommunications union o Focal points set up by ITU to create fixed way of communicating
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