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Nov. 5 - Domestic Relations.docx

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Political Science
Todd Hall

Nov. 5 – Domestic Relations 1) State as Rational, Unitary Actor - Standard approach has been to look at states as unitary actors - Look at the state with something with preferences (what it wants), and beliefs (what it thinks about environment) - Foreign policy by a state is simply a matter of state actors trying to maximize their utility by what their preferences are based on their beliefs - Consistency in what state seek regardless of leadership changes – focus of today’s lecture - Unitary actor approaches misses all those internal factors (A) Unitary Actor Assumption o (B) “State as person” assumption o (C) Realism and the rational, unitary state o (D) Rational, unitary states with other goals? o Wealth, trade and even human rights as goal for actor that is unitary Critique that structure this assumption - Institutions - Internal politics - Domestic interest groups - Society 2) Importance of Domestic Political and Economic Structures (A) Democratic peace theory o Argues that states are unlikely to fight wars against each other if both are democratic Democracies are... - As likely as states authoritarian states to get in wars - More likely to initiate wards than authoritarian states - Relations between democratic and authoritarian states are more war prone than relations between pure authoritarian states - Something about democracy that lead them to be less likely to engage in war – institutions? Democratic Peace - There are minor wars - But when following criteria, do not see major wars taking place (1) Origins in Kant’s Perpetual Peace  1795 essay  Idea of how to eliminate war or reduce war in the international system  Some included: not creating treaties that did not create option of war; not creating large-standing army (need to pay for this and paying for army is expensive, therefore, creating incentive to use army and expand – accumulate land and riches – to pay for army)  Most famous argument: notion that republics do not fight each other • Republics – a polity not governed by king or individual (monarch)l but rather by an executive  If citizens are forced to pay the price, they would not likely choose war = as a result, republics would least likely enter war • Executive held accountable by citizens for consequences of war (2) Possible causes for democratic peace (a) Values and shared identity • Share similar values and identify as democracy – war becomes unthinkable in resolving a conflict • E.g. chances of Canada and US at war is hard to imagine – war as a resort is hardly an option o Compare this to the way US perceives China (nondemocratic sate)  Territory disputes – much more madness (b) Ability to understand intentions • Idea is that because of either domestic opposition parties, media, free press = much easier to read intentions of other actors • I know what you are thinking, what your intentions are • Argument has been that much easier for democracies, than autocracies, to signal will since citizens will hold executives accountable – intentions are transparent • E.g. North Korea o Authoritarian states are not very transparent o We are unsure of why North Korea wants nuclear weapons o We do not know what internal debates are, reasons are • If do not know, much easier to have misunderstandings that can lead to war (c) Democratic leaders more picky about wars, but once entered, committed to go all the way • Proposed democracies are very picky about choosing their wars but once engaged, willing to invest a lof resources to seeing the end of war • More likely then, for two democracies when they come together, will know the costs of warfare and avoid it • I am leader of democracy and I do not want to be voted out of office therefore, I do not want to choose a war where I will lose. o Democratic leaders will therefore, choose their wards more carefully • Authoritarians can engage in as many wars as they like since they are not held accountable for actions – can do whatever they please - This is all based on notion that (B) Economic Systems - Norman Angell, The Great Illusion o Makes the argument that trade causes leaders to worry about relations and loss of resources, thus, making war obsolete o 4 years later though, WW1 took place o Nevertheless, economic relations still places a part in IR (1) Commercial Liberalism o Capitalism causes leaders to worry about disrupting trade relations o Capitalism creates domestic interest groups that want peace – interest groups who have too much to lose if engaged in war o Capitalism increase prosperity and leads to more satisfied publics  People just do not want to fight => have a good life and relatively well off, would not want to sacrifice that (2) Capitalist Imperialism o Vladmir Lenin – wrote in 1916  Had a little more insight o Made the argument that capitalist states  (1) they produce more than they can sell in domestic markets  (2) leads to excess production which needs to be sold somewhere – expansion to create markets – markets for selling and to make investments with profits which will lead imperialist powers with one another (3) Capitalism as a source of conflict? o Capitalism and war: military interests o Notion that military interests that sell and make profit off of production of military
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