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POL208Y5 (129)
Todd Hall (25)
Lecture 9

lecture 9 IPCE reading notes

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Political Science
Todd Hall

POL208 – Reading Notes (IPCE) Lecture 9 The Waning of War • Moved from millions killed in wars at beginning of 20 century to thousands being killed in smaller wars now • Today’s most serious battles consist of skirmishing rather than all-out battles • Overall movement toward less war in the int’l system Liberal Theories • See the rules of IR as slowly, incrementally evolving through time and becoming more and more peaceful o Results from the gradual buildup of int’l orgs and reciprocity o Also from changes in norms and public opinion (identity) • Kant and Peace o Three answers  First, based on reciprocity principle • States could develop the orgs and rules to facilitate cooperation, specifically by forming a world fed resembling today’s UN  Second, that peace depends on the internal character of gov’ts • Republics w/ a stable monarch = more peaceful than autocracies  Third, that trade promotes peace • Relies on the presumption that trade increases wealth, cooperation, and global well-being – all while making conflict less likely in the long term b/c gov’ts won’t want to disrupt any process that adds to the wealth of their state • Economic interdependence also occurs • Liberal Institutionalization o Kant’s first answer: peace can evolve w/ int’l institutions to monitor and enforce them o War and violence appear as irrational deviations that result from defective reasoning and that harm the interests of warring states (contrary to realist theories where war and violence are seen as rational b/c they advance short term interests) o NeoliberalApproach:  States are unitary actors rationally pursuing their self-interests in a system of anarchy  States achieve cooperation fairly often b/c it’s in their interest to do so, and they can learn to use insts to ease the pursuit of mutual gains and the reduction of possibilities for cheating or taking advantage of another state  Use Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD) to illustrate argument that cooperation is possible • Each actor can gain by individually defecting, but both lose when both defect • Can be resolved by being played over and over again • International Regimes o Aset of rules, norms, and procedures around which the expectations of actors converge in a certain issue area (whether arms control, int’l trade, etc) o Convergence of
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