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POL208Y5 (129)
Todd Hall (25)
Lecture 10

lecture 10 blackboard reading notes

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Political Science
Todd Hall

POL208 – Reading Notes (BB) Lecture 10 Uses of Force • The Political Uses of Power o Use of force almost always reps the partial failure of a policy o Most wars are not as blood as they could be because of the mutual avoidance of certain outcomes  Even at war, 2 countries recognize certain outcomes they don’t want and share interests in avoiding them o 3 factors account for the increasing destructiveness of the wars of the last 200 years  The steady tech improvement in weaponry  Growth in the capacity, and thus need, of states to field ever larger numbers of forces  Gradual ‘democratization’of war: the expansion of the battlefield and hence the indiscriminate mass killing of non-combatants • The Political Utility of Nuclear Weapons • The Political Utility of Force in the Current Era o The utility of force, as well as the likelihood of its use, depends not only on the costs and perceived benefits of fighting, but on the gen pol context, the values statesmen and citizens hold, the alt political instruments available, and the objectives sought The Four Functions of Force – Robert J.Art • What are the Uses of Force? o Four broad categories o The measures of the capabilities of a state’s military forces must be made relative to those of another state, not w/ reference to some absolute scale o Defense is what most states strive for  If defence is not possible, then the next priority is deterrence o Defensive use of force  To ward off an attack and to minimize damage to oneself if attacked  Can involve both peaceful and physical employment and both repellent (second) strikes and offensive (first) strikes o Deterrent use of a force  Deployment of a military power to be able to prevent an adversary from doing something that one doesn’t want him to do and that he might otherwise be tempted to do by threatening him w/ unacceptable punishment if he does it  The threat of a retaliation  Effectiveness of the threat depends on the state’s ability to convince a potential adversary that it has both the will and power to punish him severely if he undertakes the undesirable action in question  Employs force peacefully o Whether a given state can defend of deter or do both vis a vis another depends on two factors  The quantitative balance of forces b/w it and its adversary  The qualitative balance of forces, that is, whether the extant military tech favours the offense or the defense o Compellent use of force  Deployment of military force to be able to either stop an adversary from doing something that he’s already undertaken or to get him to do something that he has not yet undertaken  Can be either peaceful or physical force  Is harder to achieve than deterrence  There can be confusion about what the state wants its adversary to do  Difficulty achieving compellence lies in how one asks, not what one asks another to do o Swaggering use of force  Deployment of military power for purposes other than defense, deterrence, or compellence  Almost always employs peaceful use of force  Expressed usually in one of two ways
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