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March 18th lecture.docx

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Political Science
Andrea Olive

POL250- Tuesday, March 18, 2014 - Legitimization of Implementation: legislative branch, signed by crown, executive, public sphere - Parks Canada: Oversees national parks, national historic sites, national marine conservation areas, reports to the Minister of the Environment - Environment Canada: manages wildlife areas, national bird sanctuaries, reports of Minister of the Environment - A lot of parks are being formed in the Arctic because it does not cost a lot of money - Fisheries and Oceans Canada: - Manages national marine protected areas, responsible for fish and fish habitat, reports to the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans Canada…Gail Shea (MP from PEI, Minister since 2013) - Together Environment Canada and Fisheries and Oceans Canada are responsible for the implementation of SARA - Why should someone comply with public policy? - Embarrassment, fear of punishment, shame, incentives/rewards, affirmative motivation through legitimacy, affirmative motivation through morality - Incentives: bring individual behavior into line with community goals, rewards (payment, grants, subsidies, tax credits, prizes…praise and recognition - Do incentives work? Yes, lots of evidence to prove this, although they can be seen as manipulative…people do not tend to complain about this because they get a reward - Incentives can be costly, risk of over-paying people - Once you start paying people to do something, it is hard to take this away once it becomes too costly…must try to avoid setting precedent - Rational Choice Model (Economics): - “Most of economics can be summarized in four words”: people respond to incentive. The rest is commentary. – Steven Landsburg - All human action is motivated by self-interest - Humans respond to incentives…but, they do not respond ONLY to incentives - Legitimacy: obeying the law because it is the law, support for democracy and democratic rule, procedural justice, can mean obeying a law you do not agree with just because it is a law (not just because you fear punishment) - Morality: obeying the law because it is the right thing to do, support for ethical underpinnings of the law, can mean obeying a law because you believe it is the moral or ethical thing to do - Why not comply? Ignorance, lack resources, lack affirmative motivations (don’t see law as moral, don’t see the law as legitimate) - “Willingness” to comply: not measuring or observing behavior, getting at motivations and values - Is there intent to comply? Is there enough knowledge to comply? - Are people willing to comply under ideal conditions? If they know the species, if they understand habitat, if they have resources - What does SARA say? It is an offence to “kill, harm, harass, capture or take individuals of wildlife species that is listed as extirpated species, an endangered species or a threatened species” - It is illegal to “damage or destroy the residence of one or more individuals of a wildlife species that is listed as endangered or threatened” - ^ applies to individuals, it is not enforceable on private land - What does ESA say? Illegal to “harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect or attempt to engage in any such conduct” - Harm= significant habitat modification or degradation where it kills or injures wildlife by significantly impairing essential behavior patterns, including breeding, feeding, or sheltering” (page 28) - ^ applies to everyone at all times, applies to all types of land, including private property - What does willingness to comply with ESA and SARA look like? - Willing to learn what species have range in your area - Willing to avoid killing a listed species - Willing to avoid destroying habitat - Willing to refrain from propert
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