POL310 Week 2 Readings.docx

3 Pages
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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL310Y5
Professor
Justin Bumgardner

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POL310 Week 2 Readings September 26Generations of UN Peace OperationsEarly 1990s after Cold War Peace Operations expanded thesecretarygeneraloutlinedthefourinterconnectedroles1peaceenforcementauthorizedtoactwithorwithouttheconsentofthepartiesinordertoensurecompliancewithaceasefireMandatedbythesecuritycouncilactingundertheauthorityofchapterVIIofthecharterthesemilitaryforcesarecomposedofheavilyarmednationalforcesoperatingunderthedirectionofthesecretarygeneral2peacemakingdesignedtobringhostilepartiestoagreementthroughpeacefulmeanssuchasthosefoundinchapterVIDrawinguponjudicialsettlementmediationandotherformsofnegotiationUNpeacemakinginitiativeswouldseektopersuadepartiestoarriveatapeacefulsettlementoftheirdifferences3peacekeepingestablishedtodeployaUnitedNationspresenceinthefieldhithertowiththeconsentofallthepartiesconcernedasaconfidencebuildingmeasuretomonitoratrucebetweenthepartieswhilediplomatsstrivetonegotiateacomprehensivepeaceorofficialstoimplementanagreedpeace4postconflictreconstructionorganizedtofostereconomicandsocialcooperationwiththepurposeofbuildingconfidenceamongpreviouslywarringpartiesanddevelopingthesocialpoliticaiandeconomieinfrastructuretopreventfutureviolenceandlayingthefoundationsforadurablepeaceThecharteremanatedfromWorldWarIIandcanbeseenashavingbeendesignedforinterstatewarsegarticle39sthreatstointernationalpeaceappropriatelysosincefrom1900to194180percentofallwarswereinterstateandinvolvedstatearmies6Butfrom1945to197685percentofallwarswereontheterritoryofonestateandinternallyorientedofcoursewithproxiesFirstGenerationPeacekeepingdesignedtorespondtointerstatecrisesbystationingunarmedorlightlyarmedUNforcesbetweenhostilepartiestomonitoratrucetroopwithdrawalorbufferzonewhilepoliticalnegotiationswentforwardBothmonitoringoperationsandtraditionalpeacekeepingprovidedtransparencyanimpartialassurancethattheotherpartywasnotviolatingthetruceandweresupposedtoraisethecostsofdefectingfromanagreementbythethreatofexposureandthepotentialalbeitunlikelyresistanceofthepeacekeepingforcehisflexibilityismoreeasilyprovidedinsecondgenerationmultidimensionaloperationsthatinvolvetheimplementationofcomplexmultidimensionalpeaceagreementsdesignedtobuildthefoundationsofaselfsustainingpeaceandhavebeenutilizedprimarilyinpostcivilwarsituationsInadditiontothetraditionalmilitaryfunctionsthepeacekeepersareoftenengagedinvariouspoliceandciviliantasksthegoalofwhichisalongtermsettlementoftheunderlyingconflictTheseoperationsarebasedonconsentofthepartiesbutthenatureofandpurposesforwhichconsentisgrantedarequalitativelydifferentfromtraditionalpeacekeepingTheUNhasacommendablerecordofsuccessrangingfrommixedtotransformativeinsecondgenerationmultidimensionalpeaceoperationsasdiverseasthoseinNamibiaUNTAGElSalvadorON
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