November 5 , 2012
The extent to which the expansion of the powers created by the 1960s the imperial
presidency. The executive branch have virtually unchecked powers, in contrast to the kinds of
checks in domestic and in the US constitution. The reason for the unchecked power, through
Cold War which was seen as a crisis that necessitated being flexible, meaning it was an ideal
circumstance to practice prerogative government – presidents that were most successful, were
those that practiced prerogatives government, the president must be active and arrive at decisions
that push the constitution to its limits in the exercise of power. Those presidents that are
generally seen as the most successful were those like Lincoln, Roosevelt, Wilson < governed
through crisis, those governing in crisis can practice prerogative gov, because congress
recognizes quick action and let them get away with it. Lincoln defending his decision to suspend
habis corpis, contrary to constitution, but the constitution is not a suicide pack. Second World
War, significant corners were cut, in regard to protection of minorities. Ethnic minorities didn’t
fare well, ww1 German/ Italian Americans hurt from policies that were seen as saboteurs,
disloyal to country of origin, and many were deported. 2 world war, Japanese Americans
Red Scare- saw capture of leftist in America, period of McCarthism, those jailed through
leftist ideas. crisis allow for the practice of pre righty government, for period, the presidents were
allowed to exercise unchecked power. One reason: anti-communism consensus. Core policies of
containment and deterrent, shared wide support through political authorities. Risks of prerogative
government – overshoot and collapse – Nixon administration, domestic politics – unleashed a
number of different programs, co-in tell pro scandal – counter intelligence program, used FBI
agents, anti-war movements, civil-rights movement, spied against others illegally, he was
resigned due to water aid scandal – members of his campaign to break into water gate hotel to
get the democratic strategies. They got caught; Nixon probably never knew about it, his mistake
was he authorized the use of money to try to buy the members to cover up the whole affair. Other
two threats of practicing prerogative powers- front lash – lash from congress after crisis slows
down. Aftermath of red scale, congress reasserted itself and put checks in place to restore
freedom of speech and aftermath of world war two. 3) Backlash- domestic politics involved,
steel tuber case. Where Truman tried to practice prerogative government, and supreme court
didn’t buy it.
Carter Administration, early Reagan years, due to revolution in Iran and Nicaragua (1979)
attempted to use crisis as justification to practice prerogative power. Iran problem faced was
protecting own national security, own security trained by USA, in revolution they cut off all
training and military. Without access to spare parts, the manufacture they received was useless.
They thought to push Iran into a national crisis, encouraged Iraq to attack Iran. When Ronald
Reagan was running for president, he was far behind Carter; only thing Carter was vulnerable
was the hostages he had taken in the embassy if he could get the released he would win. Iranians:
access to arms, Reagan administration – spilled its beans. th
911 – Conspiracy minded that sepetember 11 occurred in so many screw-ups by federal
government that should have stopped without someone inside looking the other way. Prerogative
government practiced by the Bush administration, many said the Obama would bring a good
lash, strong critic of policies such as water boarding etc. Obama signed an act that allowed the
telecommunication corporations that spied on Americans from getting in trouble.
Those that could be tried in civilian courts to be convicted. Those that they didn’t have enough
evidence, or was illegally tainted, they put them into military courts, where rules are much more
relaxed. Those not sure they would be convicted, they wouldn’t allow them to court, indefinetly
Obama maintains a kill list. To explain the policies, criteria can be put by national security.
Holman explained the policy, constitution guarantees rights, but process of law, doesn’t mean
Major problems in foreign policy is strong tendency to understand the US foreign policy as being
rational, country speaking with a “single voice”. In realistic theory- all states are rationale actors,
motivated to act rationally, due so in rationale method, subject them to decisions (cost loss) that
kind of image of American foreign policy is in the idea that politics stops at the American edge.
One national interest, where you stand in the US, but rather there is only one national interest,
chairman of CEO general motors, asked to conflict of minister, in secretary general. Idea was
clear: various loyalty to motors, but in realm of defense, where motors is a provider. Whats good
for America is good for general motors, national interest not separate interests within it.
American foreign policy has been rationale, peak in ww2, controlled the world, now they lost it.
Article Howard Wearda- tried to write an article that outlined foreign policy towards