POL327 September 24 th
Policy is the output as the state is a “black box”.
Liberal pluralist- set of institutions floating above society, through which societies compete or
different groups compete in order to shape the outputs of policy. Some argue foreign policy is an
extension of domestic policy. They see the state as a dependent variable, what the state does
depends on the inputs of the various forces including groups, individuals etc.
Second imagine- inspired by Marxist two theories, tool of dominant classst, didn’t develop that
theory very far in his writings, wrote in a non-democratic time. 21 century Marx two different
theories – dependent variable, look at the forces acting upon the state which are the dominate
classes. Instrumentalist: acts in interest of dominant elite of capitalist elites, by those that rise to
top of state power and those that rise in top capitalist economy, they have similar economy,
similar wants, and people. They don’t act directly, but they have to appear to be neutral. Function
on the one hand as the dominant elite, continue to make profits, but must legitimize the existing
status quo, act on the interest of the dominant elite. Enjoys relative autonomy from the elites.
Structuralist- doesn’t deny the instrumentalist, capitalist/political elites having close connections,
but argues they are not decisive in pushing the state in the policies it decides. The capitalist state
requires resources, to meet foreign obligations. Accessing these resources, you need a
functioning capitalist economy. The prime motivation of the state, create a favorable business
There has to be a stable business client, that the basis of an investment they can determine if this
will be profitable, if they hold on to their money, unemployment goes up, resources required will
be diminished because of lower economic activity. Vast differences between capitalist
economies can occur with different institutions, there’s not logic to capitalism.
Structural forces are supposed to act against the interest of capitalist class, to rationalize the
system over all. Policies of new deal for the US- brought legalizing labor unions, social
programs, were resisted by dominant class, because all of them were focused on the bottom line.
They all required higher taxes, raised cost of production etc. they increased demand, by 1950s,
many groups that resisted the policies recognized they had prevented a communist revolution,
making more profits on laissez-faire capitalism. To pursue the state requires autonomy from
dominant classes to make these decisions that rationalize the decisions at a whole.
Stateist version- Tilly: reducing the state as a dependent variable is historically wrong in that
states emerged prior to arrival of capitalist relations of production, states are not reflection of
other interests but are self-interesting institution primarily motivated by increasing their own
power, it requires access to resources, which in turn predisposes states to extract the resources
from own population in as efficient form as possible, states that had access to better economies, raised their access to resources. Merchant capitalism was more efficient than feudal capitalism,
had a competitive edge. Feudal mode, were slowly replaced by those states or imitated them.
Transition to Industrial capitalism was far more profitable, Britain was first country to emerge
had serious advantages over those that didn’t have those.
Germany upon unification in 1870s was based primarily on state producing grain, shipped to
supply industrial economy in Britain, which that money was used to import goods from Britain.
In this situation Germany would become a colony of GB, dependency of Britain, it had to
undergo the industrial system itself. This wouldn’t have happened if they didn’t use tariffs to
keep British goods out. The ruling elites were probably set against this because Britain would
stop selling things.
Coalition of iron and rye: agreement of the state and dominant elite, to set up banks for the
younker class (elites) to channel their profit into these banks, which lent money to industry to
develop. The purpose industrialization was to become one of the great powers, in Bizmark’s
view you needed access to technologies relevant to the making of war, which is the steel
industry. They developed a chemical, electronics industry which projects power. It was the state
bringing this into beings; self-seeking actors who’s actions cannot be reduced to an economic
system or preference of dominant elite.
Constructivist: doesn’t elaborate a real theory of the state, argue political communities and
states that organize the communities rest upon a culture of defined in the way that anthropologist
define culture. What’s important is that our cultures provide us to basic answer of what we’re
doing, our society how it differs from others that it argues from others, these ideas have a
powerful impact how various states seek to deal with how they deal with security problems. To
understand policy, you need to understand political culture of society that produced them, and
you need to know the history, the myths that aren’t subject to evaluations. These myths
predispose them to deal with certain questions in certain ways.
Realism: see each state responsible for own security, no rules, or dominant institutions that the
security can be guaranteed, only power. All states attempt to maximize their own power. Realist
argues states are rational actors, rational power maximizes not because the individuals are
rationalize. States are bureaucratic institutions, by their very nature embody rationality, control
lots of information, have distinct advantage over individual leaders. Policy depends on decisions,
decide by individual or group, has to understand how these are made.
G.Allison: wrote an article about Cuban missile crisis analysis;
rational actor model president Kennedy during the 13 days that elapsed from soviets introducing
missiles to Cuba to removing them, engaged in rational process of decision making, he got all
major aids, secretaries, military officials, sat them around a table and said what to do, numerous
approaches. All boiled down to cost/benefit analysis- came up with blockading Cuba in order to stop SU introducing more missiles and punishing Cuba for aggressive behavior to US, and
promising they would remove the Turkey Missile base and guaranteed they wouldn’t invade
Cuba. Was secret because to announce Turkey vs. Cuba would invite states to hold US hostage,
negotiate. You reward one state, they all do the same. SU submarine 3 wanted to shoot missiles
but one didn’t want to.
What’s required for rational actor 3 things- 1. centndlized decision making process where key
leader Kennedy is in charge of overall process, 2 : its open, all members of government are
represented what will be an ideal policy response, resulting in a neutral cost/benefit, allowing the
leader to come to a conclusion that one is superior to another. 3 used hierarchy- implements the
decision once the leader decides it is implemented. Always elements that may act contrary to
decision (ex: sending spy planes over Cuba, one was shot down). All governments don’t act in
Ex: US President, how to make milli