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January 28th 2013.docx

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Political Science

th January 28 2013 Research Paper: hypothesis relates to some aspect of making of foreign policy of such a country. Address a controversy in the literature. More liberal ideologist, realist tendencies in their foreign policy etc. on any topic it shouldn’t be hard to identify a controversial < Marxist, liberalist, this paper I’m going to examine such and such in the various perspectives in the paper. European Union Actor to frame our discussion in our two cases – France and Germany. German post ww2 era, without pay attention to main goal which is integration into common Europe. Main threat that Europe faces is primarily each other, these threats were increasingly disappearing. Economic: not idea of EU or sovereignty has gotten a bad name, rather the model ment to achieve this goal is flawed, not because of the vision of polling sovereignty was a bad idea, but rather the conclusion is Europeans move too far too fast, not so much in political integration, and coordination of foreign policy. Adopting a common currency late 1990s before material conditions within the continent and the political institutions were ready to cross that bridge: the level of development of various European powers, was still far apart. By the time these crucial steps to a singular economy were taken the most crucial a common currency. The economic levels of Portugal, spain, Italy, Ireland and Greece < countries referred to as pigs were far below than those more developed in western Europe like France & Germany. That meant the common currency and common market would tend to show these differences, for reasons difficult for a country to industrialize and catch up from those outside its borders. Those western had more benefit if they had equal access to these markets, Germany profited at the expense of these weaker countries. Ex: US difference of level of institutions and economies like states Michigan, Newyork Pens compared to New Mexico, Mississippi, Alabama, yet they share a common currency but has not resulted any state that has wanted to leave. The political institutions are developed in such a way where a large federation requires the ability to redistribute the resources to equalize this process. Within the European union, those institutions and due to the long history of sovereignty, remain under developed. Not so much political institutions, but the distinct political cultures. Difficult to sell the idea in Germany that average German should pay higher taxes, so part of tax revenue should go to Greece to bail them out, who from point of view of Germans are considered free loaders, some truth to that. Chancellor of Germany, uphill battle in convincing the German public to go along with it, not successful. Easy answer is the Europeans to abandon the common currency, it seems the case that those not admitted to the euro but are part of the EU – Hungary, chec republic, faired far better than those in the currency than less developed countries. It allows them to devalue their currency, can make imports from stronger countries more expensive and do protectionism from foreign market, to make local products cheaper. One way street: no formula created from how to get back out of it, Greek debt is in the form of euro’s, if they adopt their own currency, it would lose its value and devaluation & make creditors in other European countries happy. The German government recognizes the huge benefits, enlarging own market. Over 500 mill consumer, easy access, significant. Exports paid In euros, German competitiveness determined the value of the Germany currency, the competitiveness of the euro, Germany profits hugely, even outside the European union. The current context the Germans are holding out, & are not subsidizing. In the long run, recognize it has a strong interest in holding the system together to keep their exports low. Historical Context: European union has been seen as the end of the West Phalian state system: emerged out of western Europe, reason it defines the global system, has to do with the circumstances, 30 yrs war, largely fought on German soil and neither side was able to eliminate each other. 2/3 population disappeared. Was costly, means found to bring end to it was simple declaration that religion of the king of the religion of the people. If your king was protestant you be protestant or you switch places. Due to this 90% of Germans identify themselves as Catholic or Protestant, only 15% claim to believe in god, secular society. Creation of the idea that states are equal & sovereign, idea of diplomacy: rests on basic idea that diplomats are immune from ill treatment from the other states no matter how weak or strong. Idea of Realism: notion that states are core entitles they are first and for most by security, survival and they compete with other states to amass more power in order to guarantee the security for their survival. Peace of Westphalia ended the 30 yr war, many would argue it didn’t lead to peaceful coexistence, became interstate war. Superior, paycheck, numerous wars did not involve a huge amount of casualties, when one army tried to out move the other, no interest in dying for their nobel men . War of the Roses: between diff rulers within Great Britain, 5 and 15 causalities and result of drowning in mud, not by killing each other. The attempts by various nobel families but to create nation states starting with French revolution and Napoleon. First time harnessing the power of state power and national identity, by doing this convinced the average citizen they had a stake in dying for their country. That they should be willing to do this. Extent to which napoleon forces were able to overrun the professional military resulted in the rest of Europe trying to imitate this, ushered in the idea of the nation state. While the napoleon wars briefly gave rise to the stale mate in Europe, saw a sharp turn away in 1990s in concert of Europe system started to break down. Concert of Europe function on numerous power setters, France, Britain, Austria-Hungary, Germany etc, none were able to become to aggressive to their neighbours because the others would restrain this. German unification largely ended this in part of three interstate wars, prusia and Denmark. The second a war between Prussia and Austria- hungary which gained control over nevera franco-prussia war, france Russia, gained control over the Rhine land. Problem with that it upset that overall balance made it difficult> original offer made a security dilemma: as one state increases its security others become more threatened, competition for security is always a zero sum gain, as one state builds its military might it feels more secure but makes others less secure. Lead to a split between defensive realism: argue true state craft needs awareness of these security dilemma’s who recognized that pushing to far it would create an alliance with german power, he needed to restrain In central Europe to not appear to endanger Russia, france Britain etc, he avoided the temptation to form a alliance with Austria hungary (were german speaking) almost a natural alliance between those two. This in turn would result in a two front war, divide it between a eastern and western front. Bismarck was outstead when Kaiser died and was replaced by Kiser Wilhelm the 2, not interested in running government and left it to his chancellor, not as cautious and formed an alliance with Austria- hungary, which what Bismarck feared, alliance of Russia, france, Britain. War in which each side managed to convince themselves that
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