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University of Toronto Mississauga
Political Science

TH FEBRUARY 25 2013 France: Emergence of French national and its national identity which we discovered has an important impact on understanding the foreign policy & politics of a country. French identity= less complicated than Germany, or in Russia, due to the fact France is credited by most international observers by inventing the idea of nationalism. First state to start nationalism in advancing its national aims, doing so sucessfully. to such an extent that nationalism has been imitated by virtually all other states that have been confronted by the power of France as expressed by the initial success by Napoleon by eliminating other rivals political systems during the Napoleon Wars, quickly defeated western adversaries and various groups in Russian territory, and close to defeating the British. Power of national identity, as expressed in powerful national opposed by professional army, organized by napoleon 1799-1815 led to the idea of the nation state, which is important to the Westphalia system. ultimately only triumphed in ww1 in the dissolution of multinational empires (Austria-Hungarian and Otumin Empire) Ultimately only triumphed by the dissolution by last multinational empires. Only partial realized goal to nation states, states represent an ethnic linguistic community that is relatively homogenous = In western Europe, this ideal was never realized it is (Belgium continues to be divided) Not descriptive of the non-European world, ethnic division is extensive but the great power is aimed in that direction, Wilson expressed the self determination of nations, inspired by the French example nation state, the identity of the nation with the state and ability to meet social and military goals by this. French national identity didn’t emerge simply by Napoleon, France was one of the first countries to develop a French identity beginning in 843AD, when most of what is today French territory was separated from the holy roman empire. Began to develop a far stronger state and state identity through the dynasty ruled from 787 on, and whose controlled more or less most of modern France borders. Emergence of a relative strong state to relatively constant territory to considerable extent facilitate the emergence of absolutism, in the process of industrialization. In that it allowed the development of institutions that could control the territory could impose customs and develop a powerful beurcracy to minister a customs unit, all of which were < important steps for France to take as a late developer compared to Britain, for facilitating it. as a late industrializer in competition with GB for domance over Europe, they needed to protect their market from cheap imports, from abroad particularly from GB and having that strong state institutions made this possible. Served to strengthen the role of bureaucracy within this French state even be4 the French revolution. German industrialization we saw similar pattern german industrialized later and with more direct interference by the government of Prussia in organizing coalition of Iron & Rye that facilitated German Industrialization, France state played an even more important role, where the beurcracy played a even more important role, which has lasting institutions impacts on French society to this day. referred to as Dirigisme: etatisme < statism which identify the fact that today the French economy is organized different from British, American, Canada economy the state plays bigger and central role in economic policies of France. One of the most obvious outgrowths today of this pattern can be noticed in the education institution in France, by the far the most difficult institution to get into as a student is national school of administration, commanding heights of economy are strongly influenced by burucuratic nature of French capitalism and its close ties to the state. Despite the emergence early on of a French national identity, France in contrast has not been stable in terms of political development. That level of instability has been a prominent feature of French politics since the collapse of the monarchy during the French revolution, not all different from Libya, Egypt, consisted of many forces that united against the monarchy corrupt of Louis the 16 , and while it was successful of overthrowing the monarchy led to struggles between different forces, where the more radical ellements were @ first the Dominant force, imposed their ideas of socialism & cry of agailatian sharp contrast of life liberty & pursuit of happiness, however the revolution was incomplete. revolution process that began in 1789 led to the rain of terror where Je-taug-en forces exceuted those part of the monarchy, eventually turned on eachother ultimately came to the end of Napolenan Balitart etc, Napolean B, imposed his own dictatorship, imperial project from 1799 to 1815, brought order to chaotic French environment, but tried to imperial project that main aim that tried to eliminate feudal monarchies from western Europe. while that project failed, in part France Napolean over extended itself, defeated in russia by the Winter, lasting impact throughout Europe. Weakening the monarchy that governs over Germany, to considerable extent delegimazing those monarchies and introducing legal monarizations Napolean Code to the territories that were occupied. legacy of naploeans drive through Europe, , Napolean’s defeat created a republic first 1815-1830. The first republic was a form of parliamentary democracy but never enjoyed complete legitimacy within France. In particular, the strong influence of the Catholic church was hostile to republic government, a number of the institutions of first republic made the government weak & unstable. Proporational representation resulted in pattern French politics in contrast to German, British, USA not being dominated by two or three large parties but by 6/7 parties competing for power, which in turn means forming a majority government requires coalitions of many forces, parties which tend to weaken those governments in taking action, result in frequent collapses of those governments when coalitions fall apart, which in turn means they are not capable in dealing with the issues in keeping stability. Came to an end in 1830. 1830-1848, renewed a second republic began in 1848, modeled on the institutions of the first – proportional representation lasted four years. Overthrown by Napoleon the third to restore the empire, brought a stability through authoritarian system came to end in French defeat Franco- Prussia war in 1870, defeat and instability in France in which 1870, 1871 revolution took place in Paris which established a Paris Comu, first attempt to establish a communist government in Paris, but were driven out of power in 1871.. 3 republic 1875 defeat in ww2 1940 Appeared to be stable it consistently faced opposition from two different sides, one was the left, felt it was excluded in part because of the brutality of the suppression of communist forces in dealing with the Paris, and on the other hand faced hostility from the dominant institution of the Catholic Church Third republic was based on the separation of powers to a large extent excluded the Catholic Church from politics which was resented by the Church, the vast majority of citizens were catholic. Another major source of stability was Tensions with the military & civilian throughout the third republic bubbled during the driffise affair.1894-1906s Drifese low level officer in military accused of selling military secrets to Germans, Jewish religion resulted in considerable flare ups of anti semetist inclination in military & general republic, sent to Devils Island, found not responsible in 1906. Defeat came from not being able to defeat Nazis, & was defeated in 1940s France was governed directly by German forces, including the territory of Paris, the southern half was given Quazi independence under Veiche France, governed by city of Vieche by Martial Butain, who was closely allied with the Nazi government. one of the main problems that arose from France, was the close collaborations of many forces in France, in vieche & territory controlled by Germany with the nazi regime. France was occupation by Germany, technically gained control over French Colonies, particularly over those in North Africa. Politics emerged France was liberated by the Britain, USA and the free French forces under the leadership of Charles De Gualle. in ww1 and Ww2 the issue of colonialism came up, issue came up particular that Wilson rejected the idea of colonialism, but wasn’t very successful @ getting far w/ getting Europeans to liberate their colonies. Part of effort to defeat Nazi regime, was to encourage the colonies citizens to fight against the Nazi regime with the promise they would gain their independence. De Gualle suggested If Algerians rose against the Germans, he would be willing to grant Independence fourth republic that emerged after, is that things didn’t happen that way, when France was liberated the new government was not inclined to surrender its colonies in south east Asia or in Africa. Issue of French colonialism: which was like France itself, transformed by the French Revolution French colonialism dates to 19 century, Algeria was colonized by the French in 1830, Invasion of Algeria that some analysis compare to Iraq, meaning superiority of French forces was evident when the French forces sailed on Algeria, in 1830 met with pleasure crafts of sail boats that wanted to view the spectacle of French bombing on Alegeria. when they came met with insurgency, early experience of counter insurgency came out of struggle to subdue Algeria which took over 15 yrs could have taken longer if it wasn’t for a strategic error by Algeria of organizing themselves into a modern military and meet the Fr
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