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Department
Political Science
Course
POL327Y5
Professor
Jurgensen
Semester
Winter

Description
MARCH 18 TH Dominate trade with North Africa, through International Institutions through IMF, French Banking system. The French were pushed out of North Africa, reentered through ties through the military institutions and Algeria, intervention in Mali, short term intervention push Islamic forces outside of North Africa, where Mali troops would take over. This was fairly predictable; mission was expanded from months to years, no forces to take place of the French. This will be for African Union troops, non are particularly enthusiastic about sending their troops, these forces would train the Mali troops, problem = US in last four years have spent 400 million on training the Mali forces and ended the funding when the Mali forces staged a coup, defected to the Northern Islamic Fighters. Meaning France is likely to be found stuck in Mali more and more NATO troops, additional help from country, none of those who are keen in sending in more troops India: First reading: rise over the period since independence 2 nd = impact of Indian political culture on rd foreign policy through crucial intervention of first PM Neru, 3 = evolution of Indian defense policy 1 article: main argument India has in many ways defied the predictions of outside observers three page summary of various predictions by observers of India, all of whom think India would fall apart & come to nothing . Last governor of British India governor in 1947 the patrician of India into Pakistan and India would be the first of many patricians ion of India would be the first of many, without the role of GB, would fall in the various sub components, return basically to the condition it had been taken over by Britain, no India nation but number of principalities that co-existed with relative degrees of peaceful conditions. India today still exists & is viewed as one of the great success stories of the last 20 years, rising tigers in Asia along with China, India has maintained throughout the 1990s tremendous growth rates, approaching 10% per year. That many credit to opening market forces after 1991. Very few predict today that India is going to fall apart anytime soon, despite the fact that many of the reasons for predicting the outcome of India in 1947, 60s, 70s, the problems are still here today. 50s and 60s India seen as one of the basket cases (Europe USA), as one of the problems of the third world, example of the validity of the theories of overpopulation stripping the resource bases of societies, inevitable decline, yet India did not see this, 1960s experienced the green revolution, from country marked by famine, in the 50s and early 1960s became a net food exporter, because of the technologies of the green revolution. Green revolution tech began in Japan prior to ww2, historical problem of not enough land to feed its own population, went to work trying to develop developing high yielding technologies, rice & wheat. Never got very far, Didn’t get far, project picked up by USA after defeat of Japan, rockafellah foundation put large amount of money in high yielding developing varieties of crops, focusing on wheat but other crops. basic ideas of inbreeding technologies, various of wheat that produced more of the seed, less of the staw, greater output of acre than conventional forms of crop that were used at the time. India was one of the first users of these technologies, & became one of the success stories in exporter of wheat & rice that previously needed to be imported. Main problem with the Green revolution crops, the techniques to produce these crops, they were breading specific varieties for specific traits, similar to breeding different dogs. Inter breeding. High Yields: problem when you increase the desired wheat, you ignore pest resistance higher yielding varity of the crop but other problems. India: using these yielding varietiy This requires a lot of imputs, that previous were not required like urgation, pesticides etc because these crops were having hard time existing in environment of india. Cant access food other forms of organism are more competivie in that regard, get rid of those organisisms, through lots of herbasides. Vulnerable to pests, grasshoppers etc, get pesticides.. upshot: only people who could make use of these crops were wealthy land owners who had acess to funds to pay for the various imputs and also The seeds which were also very expensive, meant increase their out put of the crops increased tremendously, or smaller farmers couldn’t afford them at all or had to borrow money The smaller farmers Productivity remained the same the ones but price was much lower, suddenly big producers were producing far more than previously available, supply rise but demand doesn’t rise, the price drops that were producing supply rises & doesn’t rise in response to that, small farmers went out to business, media size farmers took out credits on the ability to pay back which again is questionable if the price of product drops, a lot of them went bust. While india did export crops it didn’t mean they had eliminated poverty, to large extent Genetic engineering is the same flaw and technology. Despite fact India became success in Agriculture, poverty exists & has gotten worse. Throughout the 1960s/70 green revolution era, but even worse period since Economic opening 1991: BBC reported = 20 yrs since economic opening, the abandonment of socialism by congress party in India, inequality has doubled. Population at 1.2 billion, 450 million live in dire poverty =30 cents a day or less. That means that India has more people living in dire poverty than all of Africa combined. UNDP Index Human: India 129/146 countries, Indian government estimates 50% of its rural population, live in poverty. 836 million people live in poverty: 50 cents per day or less. The official government statistic for child malnutrition is India children suffer from chronic malnutrition. 1 in the world. Just as “Success” of green revolution made wealthy, the economic development has also had success Forbes: India 4 place of countries w/ greatest number of billionaires, 61 in India. Combined wealth of 250 billion. 200,000 millionaires. All of this result of economic system which insures the flow of wealth upward, Accumulation by dispossession. The dispossession relates to the pressure on the majority of the population, which is still rural based on farming, that began with the green revolution but execrated by genetically modified crops. Which have put more and more of peasants into dead traps which has resulted in India government one farmer committed suicide every 2 hours. Hard to find references, India continues to suffer from considerable internal instability, have to go to places like amnesty international to find statistics in respect for human rights. India is involved two internal wars at the same time, the most significant war over Kashmir influencing foreign policy. 70,000 Indian troops stationed. The other conflict, rural population of central India and the north east India. Primarily against the groups that were earlier parts of history viewing as the untouchables, lowest casts of the Indian cast system over Land rights, India has fueled much of industrial by basis of opening its territory by foreign investment in the mineral sector, and the primary areas of mineral extraction are the rural and forest areas of central India in north eastern India, problem = occupied by tribal groups, that practicepractice tradition forms of agricultural, hold the land collectively not so much individually, meaning no clear defined property rights to that land which in turn allows the Indian state to grant the mining industry land, which tries to Push local population off the land, resulted in peasant uprising in many regions which are generaly mauiste because of their peasant base muasisite mauw-is counter insurgency adopted by Indian government responses by Indian uprising, ,severe human rights, Indian state also appears to be guilty for. the reasons for the pessimism for Indian stability that exists at time of independence are here today, Despite the growth and development that has occurred in other parts of India, particular of cities like Mumbi, deli, expensive real estate, case of new deli, reason it’s a desirable neighbourhood in New Deli, demand for the housing is very large. Sizeable middle class, 30-50 million, middle class having income between $70 and 300$ per year. India did not exist prior to the Raj (british rule over indian sub continent) which created India as a nation state if you could call it that, what unify it today is the experience of the Raj. Enormous number of official languages, 13 systems of writing, small portion of system of writings let alone the languages. English language unifies the government of India. The raj also modernized a lot of infrastructure & created the institution of state that took over after the departure of the British. Introduced crutial links for the economy, such as railway system in India, which was largely constructed which was to a large extent constructed by the British, even in 19 century more extensive than railway system in England itself. Also developed the main interest of the british (white manss burden not sustaining )nterest in the indian subcontininent, was (white mans burdenaccess access to resources and markets, was access to ports, the cities are still important to this day Mubi and culcuta. Departure of the British: developing his techniques for this. Hold over India, the British had economy. Gandhi recognized the foundations of British hold on India were economic, furthermore that since hold of Indian society by Britain was economic dependence, Independence for India needed to be not just governing, ultimately it needed to gain economic independence, from GB, confronted British colonialism not by organizing Gorilla forces to confront England but the crucial components British hold over economy was the ability to tax India, huge population, low number of British officials seem almost impossible – Salt tax. GB made it Illegal for Indians produce own salt, buy It from British monopoly since salt is inexpensive and GB had monopoly on the salt, they could increase the price as a form of taxing the population, consequently rather than confront GB officials with military might Gandhi encouraged those to march to sea and to make their own salt. GB could shoot them, but would make this brutality un practical for the British, stopped resisting this Make this type of brutality, stop resisting that effort The other: Gandhi much more well known for economic dependence of India on GB was substantial extent on export of cotton. India @ the time of colonization had one of the most Highly developed tech style industry in the world, British had to destroy this tech stile industry in order to make India dependent on GB techstyles, being produced in the miles of Manchester and else where, destroying the techstyle industry allowed/gained access the raw materials that they coud export cotton to GB and import industrialized produced clothing items to india which became one of the biggest markets on the planet for british techstyiles. . Indians should make home spun, fabric they themselves made and the stuff he wore, by doing so large undercut cornerstones of british interest in the region, while all of this is true.. stated british would have difficult if it was not for melt down ww2, severally weakened the British, made them appear far less important to their survival, may have been a lot more robust in defending there holding of India. Independence: result of Gandi’s effort combined with Nervru, and INC founded by two and several others, was not without problems: most immediate problem = India always been an multiethnic state but a denomination state: remains so today demonanation state. : India 80% has hundi, but 1.2 billion Buddist = 2 percent, seeks 1.9 % Muslims substantial 13.6% of Islamic. India has long history of been region of the world marked by large tolerance for religious difference allowed muslim and hindu’s peacefully relatively. As these differences prospect of Independence, role of Britain tend to rest as colonialism did on a divide and conquer strategy. On colonial powers pitting various groups against eachother, under British control in India, spilled over in problems faced in India national congress in dealing with muslim minority. INC was always a nationalist movement as identity a nationalist movement today as nationalist movement was largely secular. Chief aim = wanted to prevent the disintegration of India in part because it recognized the problems of partition would entail, Muslims not concentrated in certain regions within India subcontinent , spread throughout regions therefor partition to take place, enormous problems within India as indeed it did. British had interest in weakening a Indian state, and did what it could to fuel these tensions, upshot immediately it split into Muslim entity Pakistan and India proper. lots of violence & hardship as result of muslims in regions particularly those in numerous therefore a competition between Muslims and Hindu’s.. To escape from Hindi rule into regions of Muslim rule, Pakistan consisted of today Pakistan and East Pakistan which is today Bangladash, east end of India two regions combined into one country Pakistan, fell apart rather east Pakistan got independence from war in 1971, created problems for today: primarily partition took place regions dominate muslim would be Pakistan those not remain in India Exception: Territory of Kashmir, very north consists of majority of Muslim population 90% roughly but governed by Hindu who resisted to join Pakistan. He declared Kashmir would remain part of India, India viewing itself as secular state and resisting Muslim entity accepted this Pakistan did not accept this. Referendum that would determine the future, referendum which would have been won by muslim majority, never allowed to happen meaning Kashmir divided and subject to two wars of India and Pakistan remains under India control. remains under Indian control, considerable problems, Pakistan consisten
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