POL327 Class 2 September 17 , 2012
Foreign policy studies, is recent, new field & traditionally had a strong tendency towards euro
centrism. Reason= international theory was understood that states are divided among the great
powers and the dependent states, only great powers only have independent foreign policy. Most
of those great powers were concentrated in Europe, it focused on Britain, France, Spain etc.. than
the rise of SU and USA. Lesser states (dependent) mean (Canada after second world war, rides
on US for security) refer to “finalization” of lesser states, relationship that Finland had in the
cold war and before to Russia and Soviet Union, couldn’t guarantee its own security against its
powerful neighbor. Consequently they didn’t develop an independent foreign policy, that focus
on great powers, effected those in developing world, which to a large extent were excluded.
Experience of colonialism, territories in developing world didn’t have independent foreign policy
as long as they were colonies of foreign powers. When they emerged as independent states, they
exhibit characteristics of dependency in economics (economically independent, ect India 1945)
They continue to function on economic dependence ..social structures that were created from
colonial times, were survived. Period of cold war, dependency extended to military those aspects
of foreign policy, those depended on US or SU. The countries that championed non-alliance
became aligned. (India increasingly dependent on SU for foreign supplies). This has changed
significantly with rise of China and India, and decreasing of Iran, North Korea and Venezuela.
Policy Change: foreign or domestic – is the decision making process at the level of the state and
to understand the nature of policy, how they are shaped & why, have to familiarize with the
debates of policies and nature of states.
Theories of the State
What are states, why do they do the things that they do? 3+1
Liberal/Pluralist-Contract liberals saw the emergence of the state as a social contract,
emergence of the magnacardium (what the state is allowed to do, limit and agreement between
individuals within the society & with the state, how the government should rule). EX: USA
approach dominates, point to US constitution, declaration of independence was bedrock of the
creation of the US state, idea that relationship between state & people is based on agreement that
both the governors and the citizens have to observe. All men are equal, certain rights which are
life, liberty and pursuit of happiness (John Locke switch from property). When governments
violate these rights, it’s the right/duty for every member of the society to abolish it, if the social
contract was violated. Forces government to stay within limits, the “invisible hand” ambition
should check ambition. Everyone can be selfish, do what’s best for yourself to enhance your
wealth, but in this competition, the invisible hand, what society needs as a whole is created. Just
Price- needs of society balanced with the person producing the good. Ex: cranberries, would
have a just price set, how much you could charge for them. Imagine an extreme shorage, lots of
people getting sick without them, the just price should be set so everyone can get them. The farmer should charge whatever he wants for the price, if people die from malnutrition so be it.
Reason he favored this radical idea, Adam Smith proposed a system that runs itself, these
products produce themselves, humans should stay out of it leave it for the market. Framers of US
constitution were influenced as some politicians are today, consequently all humans are selfish
are going to do what they perceive will advance themselves. We need to set up institutions that
are governed by ambitious which would check each other. Legislatures suspicious of executive
branch set up a system to keep them both in check. Third branch is judiciary (final check). Basic
idea of social contract and state that emerges is the state is a neutral entity, an arena where
groups/individuals try to compete to influence politics. Through elections, lobbying, public
opinion etc to influence the decision making process so their own interest is reflected in
decisions made. Policy- becomes a dependent variable, state is dependent variable, you look to
the groups why the state does things it does that formulate state policy.
Marxist: Founder Karl Marx, didn’t write much about the state but mostly about economics and
that capitalist economy, capitalist was necessary stage in human development. Logic of
capitalism, and self-interest, had the tendency to erase feudalism. (divine right of kings) it
progressive to past a society dominated by religion and myth, to a rational system of society.
Argued Capitalism revolutionizes the means of production, does this by it enslaves everyone
within its system.
In capitalism, ruling class is not free. Slave based society is based on ownership of human
beings, capitalism is a class based (slaves) and exploiting class (owners) the surplus they
produced is used by the ruling class. In slave based society they do what they want with the
money. Ruling class could do what they felt necessary, not progressive, these societies have little
progress in technological change. Feudal same thing: only difference class of peasants that
produce everything but can’t consume, and lords that use the surplus that the peasants use.
Feudalism based on ownership of land, ruling class is secure as long as they maintain their
property. Ruling elite can do what they want. Class based system, it created castles, didn’t
benefit majority of population.
Capitalism- similar type of system, but based on ownership of capital. The difference between
capitalism is the capitalist is not free; he can’t do with his surplus what he wants. Capitalism is
made up of workers; they extract a surplus from the working class, they spend money by making
themselves more efficient. Competition between different capitalist makes the ruling class not
free, fore to reinvest their profits in their own production. Problem with capitalism, the ones in
labor don’t see the benefits. Workers can be negatively affected, when production slows or
technology progresses, this need less work means layoff. Marx said the change is com