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POL327 Class 2 September 17th.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Political Science

th POL327 Class 2 September 17 , 2012 Foreign policy studies, is recent, new field & traditionally had a strong tendency towards euro centrism. Reason= international theory was understood that states are divided among the great powers and the dependent states, only great powers only have independent foreign policy. Most of those great powers were concentrated in Europe, it focused on Britain, France, Spain etc.. than the rise of SU and USA. Lesser states (dependent) mean (Canada after second world war, rides on US for security) refer to “finalization” of lesser states, relationship that Finland had in the cold war and before to Russia and Soviet Union, couldn’t guarantee its own security against its powerful neighbor. Consequently they didn’t develop an independent foreign policy, that focus on great powers, effected those in developing world, which to a large extent were excluded. Experience of colonialism, territories in developing world didn’t have independent foreign policy as long as they were colonies of foreign powers. When they emerged as independent states, they exhibit characteristics of dependency in economics (economically independent, ect India 1945) They continue to function on economic dependence structures that were created from colonial times, were survived. Period of cold war, dependency extended to military those aspects of foreign policy, those depended on US or SU. The countries that championed non-alliance became aligned. (India increasingly dependent on SU for foreign supplies). This has changed significantly with rise of China and India, and decreasing of Iran, North Korea and Venezuela. Policy Change: foreign or domestic – is the decision making process at the level of the state and to understand the nature of policy, how they are shaped & why, have to familiarize with the debates of policies and nature of states. Theories of the State What are states, why do they do the things that they do? 3+1 Liberal/Pluralist-Contract liberals saw the emergence of the state as a social contract, emergence of the magnacardium (what the state is allowed to do, limit and agreement between individuals within the society & with the state, how the government should rule). EX: USA approach dominates, point to US constitution, declaration of independence was bedrock of the creation of the US state, idea that relationship between state & people is based on agreement that both the governors and the citizens have to observe. All men are equal, certain rights which are life, liberty and pursuit of happiness (John Locke switch from property). When governments violate these rights, it’s the right/duty for every member of the society to abolish it, if the social contract was violated. Forces government to stay within limits, the “invisible hand” ambition should check ambition. Everyone can be selfish, do what’s best for yourself to enhance your wealth, but in this competition, the invisible hand, what society needs as a whole is created. Just Price- needs of society balanced with the person producing the good. Ex: cranberries, would have a just price set, how much you could charge for them. Imagine an extreme shorage, lots of people getting sick without them, the just price should be set so everyone can get them. The farmer should charge whatever he wants for the price, if people die from malnutrition so be it. Reason he favored this radical idea, Adam Smith proposed a system that runs itself, these products produce themselves, humans should stay out of it leave it for the market. Framers of US constitution were influenced as some politicians are today, consequently all humans are selfish are going to do what they perceive will advance themselves. We need to set up institutions that are governed by ambitious which would check each other. Legislatures suspicious of executive branch set up a system to keep them both in check. Third branch is judiciary (final check). Basic idea of social contract and state that emerges is the state is a neutral entity, an arena where groups/individuals try to compete to influence politics. Through elections, lobbying, public opinion etc to influence the decision making process so their own interest is reflected in decisions made. Policy- becomes a dependent variable, state is dependent variable, you look to the groups why the state does things it does that formulate state policy. Marxist: Founder Karl Marx, didn’t write much about the state but mostly about economics and that capitalist economy, capitalist was necessary stage in human development. Logic of capitalism, and self-interest, had the tendency to erase feudalism. (divine right of kings) it progressive to past a society dominated by religion and myth, to a rational system of society. Argued Capitalism revolutionizes the means of production, does this by it enslaves everyone within its system. In capitalism, ruling class is not free. Slave based society is based on ownership of human beings, capitalism is a class based (slaves) and exploiting class (owners) the surplus they produced is used by the ruling class. In slave based society they do what they want with the money. Ruling class could do what they felt necessary, not progressive, these societies have little progress in technological change. Feudal same thing: only difference class of peasants that produce everything but can’t consume, and lords that use the surplus that the peasants use. Feudalism based on ownership of land, ruling class is secure as long as they maintain their property. Ruling elite can do what they want. Class based system, it created castles, didn’t benefit majority of population. Capitalism- similar type of system, but based on ownership of capital. The difference between capitalism is the capitalist is not free; he can’t do with his surplus what he wants. Capitalism is made up of workers; they extract a surplus from the working class, they spend money by making themselves more efficient. Competition between different capitalist makes the ruling class not free, fore to reinvest their profits in their own production. Problem with capitalism, the ones in labor don’t see the benefits. Workers can be negatively affected, when production slows or technology progresses, this need less work means layoff. Marx said the change is com
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