Class Notes (808,753)
Canada (493,377)
POL354Y5 (11)
Schwartz (11)


12 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Mississauga
Political Science

ELECTIONS & DEMOCRATIC POLITICS CRITERIA FOR DEMOCRATIZATION: Competition for Elected Executive & Legislative Positions Predetermined & Accepted Rules That Ensure Free & Fair Elections at Regularly Specified Intervals Marginalization Of Parties That Do Not Accept Electoral System & Regime Inclusive Rights To Participate: Right To Vote & Run For Office Elected Officials Should Not Be Arbitrarily Terminated Before End Of Their Constitutionally Mandated Terms Recognition Of Right Of Majority To Govern Recognition Of Legitimacy & Rights Of Loyal Opposition, Including Expectation That It May Form Government After Next Election No Parallel Political Authorities: Elected Authorities Should Not Be Subject To Severe Constraints, Vetoes, Or Exclusion From Certain Policy Domains By Other, Nonelected Actors CHALLENGES TO COMPETITIVE ELECTORAL SYSTEM IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION HISTORICAL LEGACY OF SOVIET REGIME • Elected Bodies Had Little Power • Elected Representatives Predetermined • Real Competition Covert & Outside State Institutions • Opposition Absent • Elections Used For Other Purposes (Propaganda, Mobilization) • Participation Manipulated To Demonstrate Support For Regime ELECTORAL “EVENTS” IN TRANSITION I. SOVIET UNION: 1. ELECTION TO ALL-UNION CONGRESS OF PEOPLES’ DEPUTIES (DECEMBER 1988) 2. ELECTION TO RUSSIAN REPUBLIC CONGRESS OF PEOPLES’ DEPUTIES (JUNE 1990) 3. REFERENDUM ON “RENEWED FEDERALISM” AND POPULAR ELECTION OF RUSSIAN PRESIDENT (MARCH 1991) 4.POPULAR ELECTION OF RUSSIAN PRESIDENT (JUNE 1991) II. RUSSIAN FEDERATION 1. REFERENDUM ON REFORM, PRESIDENT & CONGRESS OF PEOPLES’ DEPUTIES (APRIL 1993) 2. REFERENDUM ON CONSTITUTION (DECEMBER 1993) 3.DUMA ELECTIONS (DECEMBER 1993, 1995, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2011) 4.PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS (1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012) ELECTORAL / PARTY RULES FOR DUMA ELECTIONS Duma consists of 450 seats  225 single member, simple plurality seats  225 party list seats 2007 election: all 450 seats by party list Party lists divided into an all-federal group (top 3 candidates) and among 100 regional groups covering entire territory of RF Parties must be registered & meet all legal criteria. Central electoral commission certifies registration of parties Parties winning seats in preceding elections automatically win place on ballot. All other parties must gather 200,000 signatures (no more than 10,000 from any one region) or pay 60 million ruble deposit, returnable if party wins 4% of total vote 50,000 members, organization in 2/3 of regions, contest elections 5% threshold for party list seats (7% in 2007) Parties have right to state resources (media, cash), but required to pay back & lose deposit if do not receive 3% of list vote Limits on individual contributions (280,000 rubles) and organizational contributions (14 million rubles); limit on party expenditures in campaign (400 million rubles) Electoral commission: review, hear complaints, decide on eligibility of parties & candidates. ELECTORAL RULES FOR PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS 35 years, Russian citizen, 10 years residence in RF Term limit: 2 terms in succession Nomination by parties with seats in Duma or 2,000,000 signatures (no more than 7% from any one region) Spending limits (250 million rubles) Resources: state media & cash Winner: simply majority of votes cast. 50% of electorate voting Runoff: top two candidates ELECTIONS & DEMOCRATIZATION IN RUSSIA Evidence that elections have contributed to democratization Parliamentary & Presidential Elections On Time & According To Electoral Laws Relatively Free & Fair Elections (Eltsin) Large Majorities Of Eligible Electorate Participate Split Votes: Reformist President & Conservative Parliaments (Eltsin) ------------------------------------- ELECTIONS & LIMITS TO DEMOCR
More Less

Related notes for POL354Y5

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.